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nrSTITTrTED A.D. 1099. 

Lieut, Grand Master 


Magisterial Secretary 






(iranli €muni 

[Consisting of ilie Great Officers^ and the Knights Grand Crosses P^ 


The . . . Turcopolier, 

Bailli, the Hon. Sir Henry Dymoke, Bart., 

17 Hereditarj^ Champion of the English Crown Lieut. TurcopoUer. 

[GBSAT OFFIOEBS oontinuBd.] 

The Hon. Sir Charles Montolieu Lamb, Bart, 
D.O.Jj. Enight Marshal of the Queen's House- 
hold, and Baron of St. Hypolite in France . 

The Chevalier Bumes, F.R.S., Knight of the 
Guelphs ..... 

Major-General Sir Charles B. O'Donnell, Kt. 

The Commander John James Watts • 

Sir John Philippart, Enight of GustaviiB Vasa, 
and of the Polar Star of Sweden . 

The Hod. Sir Richard Broun, Bart., Baron of 
Colstonn ..... 

The Chevalier T. Troughear Williams, Enight 
of Uie Qolden Spur, and Count of the Lateran 

The Baron de Bliss • • • . 

The Commander Ed. G. Lambert Ferrott 
Younger of Haroldston 

Major Sir Warwick Hele Tonkin, Yice-Admiral 
of Devon, Enight of the Legion of Honor of 
France, &c. .... 

Count Fane de Salis, E.G.S. . 

Col. William Lockyer Freestun, M.P., Enight 
Commander of the Orders of Charles III., San 
Fernando, &c • . ... 

Lt Col. Sir Felix Agar, Et, formerly of the 

Life Guards .... 

Vice-Admiral A.DundasArbuthnott,Kt.of Charles 

III, San Fernando, the Medjidi^, and St. 

George of Russia .... 
The Chevalier Fischer A. Wilson, Enight of the 

Gblden Spur, and of the Legion of Honor of 

France . . . 

Grand Prior of England. 

Preeqttor of Scotland. 
Preceptor of Ireland, 
Prior of CUrkenwell, 

Lieut, BaiUi de Aquild. 

Grand Secretary ^ Registrar. 


Treasurer and Almoner, 

Commendator of Slebicke. 

Cbmmendator of Temple-Bruer. 
Commendator of WUloughton, 

Commendator of Ivehy, 
Commendettor of Baddeeleye. 

Commendator of Temple- Combe. 
Commendator of Quenyngton. 


His Highness Prince Labanoff 

The Hon. Sir Allan Napier Macnab, 
Bart., late Prime Minister of Canada 

His Excellency General Flores 

The Duke Louis de Riario-Sforza 

The Duke of Alba and Berwick 

Lieut. General Sir James Outram, G.C.B. 

Lieut. General Sir John L. Pennefather, E.C.B. 

General the Baron de Salis-Soglio 

Preceptor in Canada. 
BaUli Mandatory in South America. 
Bailli Mandatory in Italy. 
Bailli Mandatory in Spain. 
Preceptor in India ^ 

Bailli Mandatory in^Swiizerland. 


The English Langue {Lingtia Sexto) of the Sovereign Order of St. John of 
Jerusalem — which appertains to the Empire of Great Britain and Ireland, its 
Colonies, Dependencies, and the kindred people of the United States of America 
— consists of four grades, viz., Companions, Knights, Knights Commanders, and 
Knights Graijd Crosses. 

<a:f>ap iu—^l i\it (i^reat Officers ani (JTounril. 

The Great Ofi&cers are the Turcopolier, Leiutenant Turcopolier; the 
Grand Priors of England, Scotland, and Ireland ; the Preceptors of England, 
Scotland, and Ireland; the Bailli of Wales, the Lieut, do. the Prior of 
Clerkenwell, the Bailli de Aquil&, the Lieut, do. the Grand Secretary, 
Chancellor, and Treasurer; together with the following officials especially 
designated in the Royal Charter of Philip and Mary, namely, the Com- 
niendators of Slebiche, Newland-, Temple Bruer, Willoughton, Iveley, 
Baddesleye, Temple Combe, and Quenyngton : these, with the Grand Crosses, 
form the Gband Council. The dignitaries employed abroad are the Preceptors 
in India, America, Canada, Australia, and the Mediterranean, with such Dele- 
gates (BaiUies-Mandatory) as may be deputed to H. M. E. Highness the 
Grand Master, the seven Foreign Langues, and other high authorities,. Sub- 
Preceptors, and Special Commissioners may also be appointed. 

Cfjap. m.—^l tfje ContpaniottH {C.J.J,) 

Any Knight may nominate an Esquire on becoming his sponsor on the fol- 
lowing points : — 

I. That he is a Christian of liberal education, eminent for virtue, morals, 
and good breeding, and in an honourable position in life ; II. that he has 
signed the Declaration prescribed by Chap. X ; and III. that he has made 
an oblation to tKe Treasury of not less than five pounds. These points are to be 
certified by the sponsor to the Grand Secretary, who will then be authorised 
to enrol the name of the Esquire as a member of the Langue in the quality of 

«:ftap. iSa.-m tfje ItmflfjtH {K.J.J.) 

The Knights are selected from the Companions at the Chapters General by 
ballot, at which two black balls exclude, and must occupy such a position in 
life as entitles them to attend the Court of their Sovereign. They consist of two 
classes : — 

I. Those who prove, according to the ancient Statutes of the Order, that 
they are descended from four grand-parents entitled to coat armour; and have 
made a foundation in the Langue of the old established passage dues of XlOO 
sterling; these are designated Knights of Justice {JSquites JtutitioB). 

II. Those who compensate for the above by certain equivalents, such as 
marked services to the Langue in the capacity of Companion, near relationship 
to those who have advanced its interests, together with Knighthood in re- 
cognised Orders, high moral worth and social eminence, or other qualifications, 
that may enable them to promote the interests, and add to the lustre of the 
institution. In their case only one-fourth of the foundation of £100 is required, 
and they are called Knights of Grace (Equites Oration), It is in their power to 
become at any time Knights of Justice by complying with the Ordinance as 
regards that class. There is a deviation in this from ancient usage to meet 
the requirements of modem society. 

(injap. ii.-®f tfje itmgfits (ZTotntnanlfew {K.C.J.J.) 

The Chapter General may for the benefit of the Langue, or to reward 
services, promote eminent Chevaliers of either class to the rank of Knight 
Commander ; but none except Knights of Justice can offer themselves for this 
distinction. All Sub-Preceptors and Commissioners are, virtute officii, Knights 

C^qr. \iu—^i ti^e ILnt|{f)t8 ^kvlH Ctossrs ( O. C.J.J,) 

This dignity maybe conferred by the Chapter Qeneral on high and illustrious 
personages, as well as on distinguished members of the Langue m reward for pre- 
eminent services. The Great Officers, and also the Dignitaries abroad, are, 
virtute officii. Grand Grosses; and a Grand Cross has the privilege of voting by 
proxy at every assembly of the Langue. 

Cfjap. bit.— <^f tfye (STirapttTs 6metal. 

These assemble for the election of Members or any other service of the 
Langue on the second Wednesday of every month, at two o'clock, p.ii., 
at (until the erection of a Chapter House) the Grand Secretary's Office ; and 
every member of the Order is privileged to attend them, though the right 
of voting rests exclusively with the Grand Crosses, the Commanders, and 
the Knights of Justice. They may also be speciaUy convoked as occasion 
requires. Not less than seven voting members, either personally or by proxy, 
constitute each Chapter ; but when a Grand Cross presides, four other mem- 
bers are sufficient, and three Grand Crosses may form a monthly Cliapter, if 
personally present. Until the sovereignty of the Order is reinvested in a 
supreme head by the Eight Langues, the Chapter General necessarily retains 
the dispensing power as to .passage fees, &c., as regards the Sixth Langue. 

(EDfrap. bitt.— <^f CteDientials. 

Every member on his election or promotion has the same officially com- 
municated to him by tiie Grand Secretary, when he is expected to pay to the 
Treasury a registration fee of five guineas. No membai is entitled to an em- 
blazoned diploma except on payment of the cost, which is three guineas. 
The diploma is authenticated by the seal of the Langue. and n*ust bear, at 
least, the signatures of the Grand Secretary and Chancellor, or of the Officers 
officiating for them. 

Cf)ap* ix.— lEiungnia. 

The insignia consist of the Star, the Badge, and the Profession Ring, which 
are supplied at their own cost to members by the jeweller of the Langue, on 
the written authority of the Grand Secretary. The Badge only (without the 
crown, and to be worn at the button-hole,) is issued to Companions. 

(S^«p. X.— (SKnttral l^ejpfulatums. 

The profession vow of fidelity and duty to the Order, imposes upon every 
Member on his admission a promise and declaration on his honour that he will 
use his best exertions : I— To uphold and maintain the riglits, privileges, and 
independence of the Sovereign Order. II — To observe and obey the ndes and 
statutes, so far as they are compatible with his allegiance and the existing state 
and usages of British society. And III — To advancTe the best interests of the 
Langue of England and the Grand Priories which it comprehends. 

Nothing relating to the Langue shall be printed, published, advertised, or 
circulated without the sanction of the Council duly minuted; and any Member 
transgressing this rule, or otherwise acting in any way to the prejudice of the 
Order, shall be degraded and expelled. 

Cj^ap. It.— (©f tfre Creaararg. 

The foundation or passage dues in excess of the current expenditure accu- 
mulate as a Common Fund for the purposes of charity and benevolence, to 
which the Order has through all time dedicated itself. 


FROM 1099 TO 1866. 


God has formed 
Mankind to be one mighty brotherhood ; 
Himself our Father, and the world our Home. 





Feneraj^le Xangue of England. 





The Illustrious and Sovereign Order of Knights Hospitallers 
of St. John of Jerusalem arose in Palestine during the memorable period 
of the first Crusade. As a conventional institute it dates its origin from 
the year of our L6rd 1099. Shortly afterwards it was introduced into 
England, and the magnificent chapters! house of St. John at Clerken- 
well was founded by Lord Jordan Briset, in 1101. Baldwin I., King 
of Jerusalem, recognized and confirmed the Hospitaller Brethren as 
a body of Knights, in 1104. Fourteen years later, namely, in 1118, 
the rule and constitution of the Order were further settled ; and 


subsequently, in consequence of the numerous admissions into its 
ranks of kings, princes, and nobles firom eyety part of Christendom it 
was divided into the following eight branches or langues : — 

1. The Hangne of iProbence. 

2. The Zanpe of Subergne. 
8. The Xangue of Jprance. 

4. The Hangue of Italp. 

5. The Hangue of ^nagom 

6. The Hangup of CBnglanli. 

7. The Ilrangue of QEfermans. 

8. The Hangtte of (JDastfle. 

In 1185, the Grand Priory of England was dedicated by Heraclius, 
Patriarch of Jerusalem, and soon afterwards it acquired extensive 
commanderies and possessions in every part of the British islands. 
Duriug the period of the Plantagenet dynasty, the Langue of England 
enjoyed the uninterrupted favour of royalty, and a position, both in 
England, Scotland, and Ireland, corresponding with the wealth, free- 
dom, and grandeur of the chiyalby of three noble and ancient 
monarchial nations. During the 14th and 15th centuries, under 
the successive grand priorates of William de Tothale, Philip de Thame, 
John Paveley, John Eadyngton, Walter Grendon, William Hulles, 
Eobert Betyll, John Kendall, and Sir Thomas Docwra, the banner of 
St. John was the rallying point of all in the British islands who were 
most illustrious in blood, in fame, in worth, and in achievements. 
Under the latter grand prior, in 1504, the finishing touches were put 
to the repairs of the magnificent House of St. John, at Clerkenwell, 
the calamitous destruction of which by conflagration, during the Wat 
Tyler riots 123 years previously, occasioned a loss in specimens of 
arts, collections of books, and rarities of value, which, even in that 
turbulent age, was a subject of national regret. 

The transactions of the Order of St. John — first during the era 
of the crusades in the Holy Land, from the date of its organisation 
under Peter Gerard, in 1099, until its retirement from thence, under 
De ViUiers, to Limisso in Cyprus, in 1289, where it was hospitably 
received by Henry le Brun, king of that island and of Jerusalem^ ; and 


secondly, from the cbiiquest of Rhodes under De Villaret, 25th Grand 
Master, in Angast 1310, until its loss under L'Isle Adam, the 43rd 
Grand Master, in 1527 — is the history of Christendom for 428 years. 
Shortly after the latter event, and before the Order had, by the munifi- 
cence of the Emperor Charles Y., become seated at Malta, L'Isle 
Adam visited Heniy the Eighth, who had formed the design of an- 
nexing to his crown the commendaries within the English dominions. 
Henry, who knew how to appreciate brilliant actions and military fame, 
received the Grand Master in the most honourable manner, and with a 
magnificence suitable to his rank, and the esteem felt by the king for so 
illustrious a guest. After various conferences, Henry consented to 
bestow upon the Order 20,000 crowns, which he afterwards paid in 
artillery and small arms. The Grand Master had other valuable 
tokens of his majesty's favour conferred upon him, and he also 
obtained the confirmation of all the privileges of the Order within 
the English dominions, which indeed was the principal object of his 

On the establishment of the Order in Malta, in October 1580, as 
a Chef Lieu, the Knights of St. John gave into the hands of L'Isle 
Adam, in quality of their chief, all supreme power, after which he 
took possession of the sovereignty of the island. Immediately after- 
wards, a regular and spacious city was founded by the knights on that 
famous rock which will ever be the proud monument of their valour, 
their wisdom, and power. But, towards the close of the laurelled career 
of this Grand Master, the progress of the Beformation in England led 
Henry the Eighth to seize the possessions of the Order within his 
dominions; when many English knights repaired to Malta, where 
they were received by the chief authorities with affection, and care was 
taken to make suitable provision for them in the conventual palace of 
the Order. 

Stripped as the members of the Langue of England were of their 
possessions by an arbitrary exercise of power, nevertheless they pre- 
served intact all the dignities and immunities inseparable from them 
as a constituent branch of a sovereign and independent chivalrous in- 
stitue. In the general chapters, conventual councils, and assemblies 
for the election of Grand Master, the English knights were constantly 


represented ; and the moat ancient brother was always Filter, or con- 
ventual baiUi for the Langue of England. Two centuries afterwards, 
in 1782, under the Grand mastership of De Rohan, and only sixteen 
years before the loss of Malta, the circle of Bavaria was, at the in- 
stance of the Bailli de Flacksland, created a new langue under the name 
of the Anglo-Ba.vabian. This Grand Priory, which comprehends 
various commandaries in Poland and Russia, has yet to be confirmed 
by a general chapter of the Order. It has no other connection with 
the lAngua Sexta, or British branch, than the prefix of " Anglo," 
which the Order did not choose to let sink into oblivion. It is now 
presided over by Prince Charles of BiEtvaria, who assumes the title of 
Turcopolier ; and it is open to postulants of the Prostestant faith, and 
of the Greek Church, as well as to the adherents of the Church of Rome. 
Towards the dose of the long and illustrious rule of the Grand 
Master L'Isle Adam, Queen Mary ascended the throne of England ; 
shortly after which she restored to the Order all the estates and com- 
manderies which her father had annexed to the crown. Further, by 
royal charter, dated at Greenwich on the 2nd of April, 1557, she 
incorporated the Baillies, Commanders, and Knights of St. John 
in her dominions, by and under the name and title of '* The Pbios 


England," giving to them, as a corporation, a common seal, and 
ordaining for the crown, its heirs and successors, that the Knights of 
the Order in England shall for ever have and enjoy their name, style, 
and dignity, with all the ancient privileges and prerogatives apper- 
taining to them as a chivalrous and hospitallery body. 

After the accession of Queen Elizabeth, when the Church of Rome 
had reason to regret its final separation from so powerful a nation, 
the Grand Prior of St. John, Anlgid, Sir Thomas Tresham, of Rushton, 
was still for some time summoned to exercise seat and voice in 
the House of Lords, as premier baron of the realm. But after their 
territorial possessions had again been confiscated, the Grand Prior, 
Sir Richard Shelley, Turcopolier, Sir Peter Felix de la Nuca, Bailli 
de Aquila, and various commanders and knights a second time retired to 
the sovereign domicile of the Order in Malta, where they were received 
as formerly, with sympathy and fraternal regard. 


During the.loHg interval between the date of the famous siege of 
Malta, in 1565, under La Yalette, the 44th Grand Master — when 
the Langue of England preserved its post on the Mole on the Burgh 
side, assisted by the Langues of Grermany and Castile — and its final 
loss of that island under De Hompesch, the 69th Grand Master, in 
1798, the Langue of England has no history separate from that of 
the Sovereign Order as^ subsisting at the Chef Lieu. But, as before 
observed, in all the capitulary councils and general chapters of the 
Order, it was duly represented. The Grand Bailli De Mendoza filled 
the office of Turcopolier in the close of the 16th century. In the 
general chapter held o*n the llth* of May, 1631, two of the sixteen 
commissaries appointed to regulate the affairs of the Order were 
named for the Langue of England. In 1660, at the assembly for the 
election of a Grand Master, the knights of the Langue of England 
had a fourth voice. Field-Marshal the Duke of Berwick, in 1682, 
received at Malta the cross from the hands of the Grand Master, with 
the title of Grand Prior of England; and, in: 1703, the Grand Prior 
of England went to Eome in quality of ambassador extraordinary. 

Throughout the long period of 699 years during which the Order, 
in its eight divisions, had flourished prior to the loss of Malta, it was 
presided over by sixty-eight grand masters. Its sovereignty was uni- 
versally acknowledged by the princes of all Christian nations ; and it 
enjoyed the consideration and prerogatives annexed to that dignity, in 
every court. It sent ambassadors throughout all Europe. The Grand 
Master took rank and precedence before every prince in Christendom 
who was not a. crowned head. Charles 11. addressed the Grand Master 
by the following titles, ^' MninentUnme Princeps, consatiffuinea et amice 
noster carissime.*' The kings of France gave the Order the style of 
" Tees Chebs et bons Amis.-' The flags of every country saluted 
the Maltese vessels, and the galleys had a right to the first salute from 
all Christian powers. Even Louis XIV., whom no one coidd suspect 
of relaxing in th^ smallest degree in an affair of ceremony, decided 
against himself in a^ dispute on the subject. 

During the high and palmy days of the Order, when the proud 
motto of the Chevalier Brothers of St. John was " Nil Supea» nec 
Infha," and when his eminent highness the Grand Master took rank 



immediately after the kings of Europe, nevertheless be was never 
esteemed more in the Brotheihood itself than the first amongst his 
equals — " primus inter pares** Amongst the princely powers exer- 
cised by the Grand Master, was the privilege of conferring the titles 
of marquess, count, and baron on the subjects of the Sovereign Order, 
although the admission of Knights into the Order was an act per- 
formed in the various langues and grand priories by their respective 
priors and executive councils. At so early a period in the histoiy of 
the Order as the days of the first Crusade, the then heads of the 
Christian world, kings, princes, and nobles of every rank, vied with 
each other in enriching the fraternity with lands, hereditaments, privi- 
leges, and immunities in all parts of Christendom. In 1131, Alphonso, 
King of Arragon, left his whole dominions to be divided between the 
Knights Hospitallers, the Knights Templars, and the Knights of the 
Holy Sepulchre. Under Guerin de Montaigu, the 14th Grand Master, 
who flourished from 1208 to 1230, the Hospitallers possessed in Chris- 
tendom 19,000 manors. Amongst their possessions they also num- 
bered St. Croix and three other West India Islands. Under the 
Grand Master, De Villaret, the Order conquered Rhodes. By the 
suppression of the Templar Order in 1312, 9,000 additional manors 
devolved upon the Knights of St. John. It appears from the corre- 
spondence of Mary, Queen of Scots, recently collected, and published 
in seven volumes by Prince Alexander Labanoff, that a project was 
formed about the twelfth year of her captivity (1580) to give the 
island of Ireland to the Knights of St. John, but the ofifer thus con- 
templated was declined by the Grand Master. At othfer periods the pos- 
sessions of the Orders of the Holy Sepulchre and of St. Anthony were 
added to those of the Hospitallers, their original objects being analogous. 
The Chevalier Luc de Boyer d*Argens, in his. work published 
at La Haye in 1739, entitled " Itejlexiom Folitiques sur VEtai et les 
Devoirs des Chevaliers de Malthey* states that it appears to him that 
he can establish as a constant truth, that of all the orders of chivalry 
existing in Europe, the most illustrious and appreciated is that of 
the Chevaliers of St. John. Three things, he says, contribute to ftie 
grandeur and dignity of the Order, viz., the rights which they enjoy 
who compose it, the honours they receive, and the revenues they 


possess. No other Order is found, Dot excepting those which are 
established in the greatest monarchies, to which these three attributes 
are so essential as to that of Malta. 

He continues. — " A chevalier of St. Andrew of Muscovy, a grandee 
" of Spain honoured with the Toison eTOf, a duke and peer with the 
'* Cordon Bleu, is only a simple subject in the state where he finds 
"himself. He depends on the sovereign who gave him the order 
" which he carries, since that sovereign can deprive him of it without 
" being obliged to give a reason for doing so ; — ^his will, hi^ caprice, 
" are decrees absolute against which no formalities oppose themselves. 
" Tbe position, however, of the Knights op Saint John is very dif- 
" ferent. The Grand Master is the chief of a republic, but he is not 
" the king. He cannot deprive a single Chevalier of his state : but 
" when he requires to punish those who merit it, it is necessaiy to 
" submit to laws, and to follow established rules. The gentlemen who 
" have the honour to enter the Order of Malta, acquire all the rights 
" of senators of republics, and may even aspire to the dignity of be- 
" coming Sovereign of the Order. 

" As to the other dignities to which the Chevaliers of St. John may 
-" aspire, it is true that they are less considerable than those of the 
" Gkand Mastbk ; but nevertheless they are such that the premiers 
" seigneurs of France and Germany find themselves honoured to hold. 
** The office of Grand Prior of France is ordinarily occupied by a 
" prince aUied to the blood royal, and yet the place*of that bailiff is 
" the twelfth in the Order in point of rank. 

"Among the principal dignities of the Order,*' continues the Cheva- 
lier de Boyer, " are Le Grand Prieur d'Angleterre, the Grand Prieur 
" d'Irlande, and Le Bailli de X'Aigle, which form the 25th, the 
" 28th, and the 44th grand dignities in the Order." He omits to 
enumerate the Tuscopolieb, the highest officer of all in the Langue 
of England, being Conventual Bailiff, and one of the eight Filters 
of the Order ; and also the Grand Preceptor, or Lord of St. John in 
Scotland, whose seat in the Scottish parliament was inter the viscounts 
and lords of the realm. 

" The dignities of the Order of St. John," says the same authority, 
" are often below the charges which sovereigns bestow upon their sub- 

B 2 


*' jects. Yet it is notorious that the same persons who consider them- 
*' selves honoured to possess them, will not accept the most biilliant 
" ones in the realm. I ask if the Due de Yend6me would take the 
** baton of Marshal of France P Tet he was Grand Prior of France : 
^' and what is more, although the grandson of Henri Quatre^ he was 
** only received as a simple chevalier into the German Auherge^ 

In 1797, Ferdinand, Count de Hompesch, descended of an illus- 
trious German family, and .a chief* more sinned against than sinning," 
being one w^ho had ever been remarked as a declared enemy to every 
species of innovation, and as a zealous defender of the Order, succeeded 
De Bohan as 69th Grand Master. Eight years previous to this event, 
viz., in 1789, France, which from the institution of the Order of St. 
John had been its nursery and munificent benefactress, lapsed, after - 
a series of vicissitudes, into a state of anarchy unparalleled in the his- 
tory of the world. Ancient institutions were overthrown, the land- 
marks of hereditary right were annihilated, blood deluged the soil, 
and crime alone triumphed. In 1792, the Order of Saint John was 
declared to be extinct within the French territories. Shortly after- 
wards, the sanctity of the Maltese territory was violated ; and in 1798, 
the tricolor flag was allowed to supplant the untarnished standard of 
the White Cross, which for more than seven centuries had, under 
the Knights of St. John, proved the palladium of Christendom. 

On the capitulation of Malta, signed the 12th of June, 1798, orders 
were issued by the spoliators for all the resident knights, 332 in 
number, to quit the island in the space of three days. The French 
knights were even forbidden by them* to wear the cross, although the 
Order was not abolished. The Grand Master in vain claimed the 
property of the different langues ; and it was even determined that he 
should carry away neither tbe plate, the jewels, nor the archives of 
the Order. Eobbed of all the valuable treasures and ornaments of 
the chivalry, on the night between the 17th and 18th of June, 1798, 
the Grand Master, accompanied by a few of the great officers, two 
bailifife, two commanders, and the Chevaliers de Beinech and d'Henne- 
berg, embarked for Trieste, where they arrived after a tedious voyage 
of thirty-nine days. There the same reasons which prevented the 
principal members of the order from going thither, led Be Hompesch 


immediately to vacate his office, and retire into the seclusion of private 
life. Meanwliile, the riches and trophies of the Order seized by the 
unscrupulous plunderers did not long remain their prey, but were 
nearly all consumed by devourmg flames on the memorable 1st of 
August, in the famous naval Battle of the Nile. 

The favours bestowed on the Order by one of its members, the 
Emperor Paul, and the title which he had previously accepted, namely, 
that of its Protector, induced the Knights of St. John, who had re- 
mained faithful to their duty, to make choice of his imperial majesty 
as their 70th Grand Master. This office the Emperor of all the 
Eussias accepted, and took upon himself on the 29th of June, 1798. 
His inauguration took place on the same day; and the knights at 
that time in St. Petersburg were admitted to a public audience, and 
presented him with the crown and regalia of the Magistebt. The 
vice-chancellor then pronounced the act of acceptance, and all the 
knights took the usual oaths on the occasion. 

After this ceremony, the Grand Master Paul, " as a striking proof 
of his particular affection to the Order," immediately created a new Rus- 
sian priory for the benefit of the nobles in his dominions who followed the 
rites of the Greek church. He also made statutes and rules, which dif- 
fered in a very slight degree from those of the Catholic Russian priory. 
An annual revenue of 216,000 roubles was annexed to this establish- 
ment, which comprised ninetyeight commanderies. On the Ist of 
January, 1799, the standard of the Order of St. John was hoisted^ 
for a permanence, on the angle of the bastions of the Admiralty of 
St. Petersburg, and saluted by the firing of thirty-three cannon. The 
Kussian ministers in the different courts of Europe received orders to 
notify these'acts to the sovereigns to whom they were accredited, and 
to issue a proclamation to engage all the prioiies of the Order to enter 
into the views of this imperial chief, and to form one single coi-ps. 
At the same time he likewise invited all the nobles in Christendom 
who were able to produce the requisite gcntilitial proofs, to enter the 
Order, assuring them of his particular protection and favour. 

It is unnecessary to trace minutely the state of the Order through the ' 
uncertain politics of the seventeen years which elapsed between the 
seizure of Malta and the General Peace. During this transition epoch. 


the component LanguesTemained disintegrated. But the fonnalities of 
electing a hrother chief to discharge the office of Grand Master, and 
thus preserve the vitality of the sovereign institute, were duly attended 
to, and since the death of the Emperor Paul, in 1801, the office of 
Lieutenant of the Magistery, or Grand Blaster ad interim^ has been 
successively filled by the Grand Baillies, Field-Marshal Count Solti- 
koff, Giovanni Tomasi, De' Guevara, Giovanni y Centelles, Pe 
Candida, and the Count CoUoredo, the rdgmng chief. 

Within this same period, and prior to the formal revival of the 
Langue of England, amongst the British subjects elected Knights of St. 
John, occur the names of Admiral Sir Home Eiggs Popham, K.C.B., 
M.P. ; Admiral Sir William Sydney Smith, G.C.B. ; the Eight Hon. 
Sir William Johnstone Hope, Yice-Admiral of the White, G.C.B., 
M.P. and Privy Councillor ; Major Sir Warwick Hele Tonkin, K.L'.H., 
Eussian Yice-Consul at Teignmouth and Exeter; and Sir James Law- 
rence, author of a publication "On the Nobility of the British Gentiy," 
and of various other works. His late majesty. King George the Fourth, 
was also a Knight of St. John, and the cross which he wore as such 
is now in the possession of one of the members since admitted. Sir 
Charles E. O'Donnell. It is here worthy of remark, that Sir Joshua 
Colles Meredyth, Baronet, Knight of St. Louis of France, and of Louis 
of Hesse Darmstadt, was probably the last subject of the British 
crown upon whom was conferred the cross of St. John during the 
residence of the Order in Malta. This distinguished honour he re- 
ceived at the hands of the 69th Grand Master, De Hompesch, who 
accompanied the act of investiture with the customary rite of the (kco- 
lade ; the administration of which, in conformity with the ancient 
usages of chivalry, has ever formed a part of the ceremonies observed 
on the reception of an entrant into the Order. On Sir Joshua's 
subsequent appointment to the office of Lieutenant-Prior of the Langue 
of England, he conferred the accolade on several of the chief officers, 
who have since accorded the same mark of initiation on the admission 
of succeeding postulants. 

A few years before the seizure of Malta, the revenue of the Order 
amounted to 8,156,719 French livres. On the fall of the Order in 
France with a throne which had stood for fourteen centuries, this 


revenue not only no longer existed, but the Knights lost ail the pro- 
perty belonging to their three langues. Frederick the Great, a Pro- 
testant, when in possession of Silesia, suffered all the Catholic com- 
manderies belonging to the Order of St. John, to remain in tliat coun- 
try.: and **thi8 because he very well knew that the Knights were 
V educated in those strict principles of honour which would make 
'' them faithful subjects and worthy citizens ; and hence, being sove- 
" reign of a country the very existence of which depended upon the 
* * military, he felt the policy of preserving an Order which kept up 
''the spirit of warlike enthusiasm, and the ideas of glory, and called to 
" remembrance the perfommnce of extraordinary exploits." The Allied 
Powers, on the close of the long revolutionary war which shook Europe 
to the centre, professed, more or less, similar sentiments ; and under 
the propitious aspect of general affairs in the close of 1814, a Greneral 
Chapter of the French Langues took place in Paris, for the purpose 
of electing a permanent Capitulary Commission, and declaring the exe- 
cutive government of the Order concentrated in such commission, with 
plenary power to regulate all civil and financial aff^ connected with 
the institution. 

This General Chapter was attended by the baillies, the comman- 
ders, and knights representing the three Langues of Provence, 
Auvergne, and France, and the two Langues of Arragon and Castile, 
being five of the original component branches of the Order. The pro- 
ceedings were sanctioned, and afterwards confirmed, by the Lieutenant 
of the Magistery and the Sacred Council seated in Catania. Whilst 
further, the Langue of England, having long been merged in the 
Sovereign Body, was in that sense virtually present as part and pared 
of the Order as a whole. 

The Prince Camille de Bohan, Grand Prior of Aquitaine, was called 
upon to preside over this general assemblage of the Chivalry of St. 
John, and the deliberations of the Chapter resulted in the nomination 
of a Capitulary Commission, from which have since emanated many 
measures of vital importance to the Order, and in especial that main 
achievement, the formal resuscitation of the venerable Lingtta Sexta, 
comprehending the grand priories, bailiwicks, and commanderiea 
within the dominions of Her Britannic Majesty. 



This Commission of the French Langnes, to all the pioeeedings of 
which the chief of the Langaes of Arragon and Castile have given a 
constant adhesion, was first sucoesaively presided oyer by the Eailli 
de Cluguy, Ghrand Treasurer of the Order, and by Prince CamiUe de 
Bohan. In 1819, it was composed of the Bailli de Lasteyrie, Grand 
Prior of Auvergne, President ; the Commander de BertrandMolleville, 
representing the Langae of France ; the Commander Peyre de Cba- 
teanneuf, representing the Langue of Provence ; and the Commander 
de Dienne, representing the Langue of Auvergne. This latter officer 
was also, in 1827, Vice-President of the OonseU Ordinaire of the 
three Langues of France, and lieutenant of 1:he Grand MarshoL '' The 
" numerous and important services," says the Count G. de Saint Ange, 
in his work called *' Code des Ordres de Chevalerie du Boyaume," 
(published at Paris in 1819, and dedicated by permission to the King,) 
" which this Commission has rendered, and is daily rendering, to the 
" Langues of France, and to the Order in general, have merited the 
•* esteem and gratitude not only of all the Members, but also of the 
** Lieutenant of the Mastership, and of the Sacred Council, who have 
" constantly approved of its proceedings." 

By virtue of powers derived from this Commission of the three 
venerable Langues of France, with the full and entire adhesion of the 
Langues of Arragon and Castile (reservation being made of 'right to 
the Langues of Italy and Germany to concur at time and place con- 
venient), in three several instruments of convention, given under their 
Common Seal at the Hotel of the Chancellery in Paris, bearing dates 
respectively the 14th day of June, 1826, the 24th of August, and 15th 
of October, 1827, and having attached to them the signatures and 
seals of the Vice-President of the Council, the Commander de Dienne, 
the Count de Feuillasse, the Chevalier de Chastelain, the Chancellor 
of the GaUic Langues, and others, steps were taken in London, be- 
tween the years 1826 and 1831, with a view to the re-organization of 
the Langue of England as one of the component branches of the Sove- 
reign Order of St. John, and as an independent corporation still sub- 
sisting under the Boyal Letters Patent of King Philip and Queen 
Maiy, bearing date the 2nd of April, 1559. 

These steps were consiunmated on the 29th of January, 1831, in 


accordance with the deliberations and instructions of the French, 
Spanish, and Portuguese authorities of the Order. On this occasion, 
at a Chapter of the Knights then constituting the British Langue, at 
which was present an Envoy Extraordinary representing the Conti- 
nental Authorities, the late Sir Robert Peat, Knight Ghrand-Cross of 
the Order of St. Stanislaus, was installed into the Office of Gband 
Pbiob of St. John Anglia, and, together with the Officers form- 
ing the Executive Council, was invested with the necessaiy powers 
for admitting Members, and regulating the Order in the United 

During the twenty-five years that have elapsed from that date, be- 
tween eighty and ninety British subjects have been enrolled Knight( 
Hospitallers of the Langue of England. These admissions have been 
without reference to their being Protestants or Catholics, although the 
instructions repeived from the Continental authorities declare that the 
Statutes of the Order (which otherwise shall be taken as a guide and 
direction in all that is done relative to the Langue of England) shall 
be so far departed from, that the Grand Priories of the British Isles 
shall be in harmony, in respect of religion, with the churches of 
England, Scotland, and Ireland, as established by law, and with the 
Grand Priories of the Eeformed and Greek religion of Brandenburg 
and Eussia. 

By proceedings in the Court of King's Bench, on the 24th of Feb- 
ruary, 1834, before Sir Thomas Denman, Knight, Lord Chief Justice 
of England, the Grand Prior formally revived the Corporation of 
the Sixth Langue, under the Boyal Letters Patent of £ang Philip 
and Queen Mary, and took the oaths defideli administratione. And 
since that period, the baiUies and commanders forming the Execu- 
tive Council of the Corporation, have been presided over successively, 
first, by Sir Eobert Peat, who died in the month of April, 1887 ; next, 
by the Grand Prior, Sir Henry Dymoke, 17th Hereditaiy Champion 
of the English crown, who demitted office in June, 1847, on his being 
mutitioned to fill the superior dignity of Lieutenant Turcopolier, then 
' vacant by the demise of Sir William Hillary, Baronet ^ and now by the 
present Grand Prior, the Hon. Sir Charles Montolieu Lamb, Baronet, 
Knight-Marshal of the Queen's Household, and Baron of St. HypoHte, 
in the Prench realm. 


lIuKmgbout the quarter of a century which has now elapsed since 
the re-erection of the time-honoured banner of the Baptist on 
British sofl, the various steps and proceedings of the Langiie of Eng- 
land have duly been made known to the constituted authorities of 
the Langues of the Order on the Continent. Upon requisite occa- 
sions envoys from the British knights have visited Paris on the special 
affairs of the Ordor, and have officially conferred with the principal 
officers of the Langues of Provence, Auvergne, and France, induding 
the Grand Secretary, the Chevalier De Taillepied de la Garenne, whose 
fraternal solicitude to advance in every respect the views and interests 
of the Order in each of its organic branches, merits the highest praise. 
The Commander Pearsall, whilst holding commissionary powers to 
the Langue of Germany, had important conferences with many leading 
knights, including one at Friburg, in 1838, with the Baron Eeinech 
de Werth, a commander of the Order, (and a relative of the Chevalier 
de B.einech, the companion of De Hompesch in his departure from 
Malta,) who, in point of rank and standing in the Order, might then 
be considered the knight who would have been Prior of Germany, had 
the Order retained itsvprincipal seat there, the sovereign principality 
of Hettersheim ; and another at Vienna, in 1840, with the Chevalier 
de Neuhaus, Grand Secretary and Chief Minister of the Order in the 
Austrian dominions, who expressed his belief that the intelligence of 
the revival of the Langue of England would be most welcome to the 
whole Fraternity of St. John in that part of Europe ; and he offered 
such services to the Corporation as his official position might enable 
him to render. 

Further, through his Excellency the Grand Bailli, Count Christopher 
Ferretti, Minister Plenipotentiary of the Order in the Lombardo-Ve- 
netian kingdom, who visited London in 1843, special communications 
were made to the Executive Chiefs of the Order of the Langue of 
Italy; which communications were acknowledged by a letter from 
the Grand Bailli de Candida, Grand Master ad interim^ dated Bome, 
the 17th of August in that year; since which period further inter- 
course of official character has taken place. 

With the seizure of Malta the Order lost its political power, but 
neither its conventional organization, its attributes as a sovereign 


cMvalrous institute, nor yet its prestige as one of the most ancient, 
renowned, and illustrious orders of knighthood in Christendom. The 
possessions of the Grand Priory of Poland having passed to Russia by 
the treaty of 1775, Paul, on his accession to the imperial throne of all 
the Rassias, incorporated them with other commanderies, under the 
title of the Gbakd Pbiobt of Russia, with an annual income of 
300,000 florins. To acknowledge this debt of gratitude, bis eminent 
highness, the Lord Grand Master, deputed, in August, 1797, the 
Bailiff de Litta, and other knigbts, to invest his imperial majesty with 
the ancient cross of the celebrated La Yalette, the invincible defender 
of Malta, and " Hero of Christianity," on which occasion Paul was 
pleased to accept the title of Protector of the Order. These benefac- 
tions, however, to the Knights of St. John, intended to ensure the 
happiness, the prosperity, and the stability of the Order, and worthy, 
as they were then considered to be, of the most glorious ages of 
chivalry, were not the Czar's only acts of munificence towards it. On 
the 29th of November, 1798,. he made a public proclamation in his 
quality of Grand Master, in which he referred to the affection which 
he had always borne to the illustrious Fraternity of St. John, of which 
he had abpeady given striking proofs ; and expressed his determina- 
tion to pay " the strictest attention towards the proper means of re- 
'* storing the Order to its original lustre, and to the recovery of those 
*^ possessions of whicb it had been unjustly deprived." 

The untimely death of this imperial Grand Master in 1801, the 
general breach of the stipulations respecting the property of the Order, 
which were introduced into the treaty of peace at Amiens, and other 
adverse curcumstances, have combined to defeat an intention which no 
concurrence of events now can ever realize. The once numerous 
manors of the Order in the British islands are irrecoverably alienated. 
The Castle of Sonneberg, in the bailiwic of Brandenburg, with its 
eight commanderies, is no longer surmounted with the White Cross 
banner of St. John. The sovereign principality of Hettersheim, the 
pnncipar seat of the Order in Grermany, has passed into the hands 
of the spoiler. In Trance, the ample domains once the possessions of 
her three Langues, have long owned other lords. The grandees of the 
Spanish and Lusitanian monarchies have failed to withstand encroach- 


ments upon those estates in their natal soils whieh once paid tribate to 
the treasury of the Hospitallers; whilst lialta, the last noble for^ 
tress of their grandeur and power, rejoices in the supremacy of that 
maritime empire over which stretches the siseptre of British role. But, 
except in Prussia, where the successors of the Great Frederick (who 
neTOT, even in the most disastrous moments of his reign, attempted to 
possess himself of the wealth of the Order), have not only appro- 
priated the Biandenbuiig commanderies, but have also instituted a 
royal Order of St. John, the better to keep alive the remembrance of 
their cupidity and despotism, no fiat of abolition has ever issued 
against the sovereign Order. On the contrary, even in states where 
confiscations of its lands and hereditaments have taken place, the 
Order itself, as a conventional institute, has continued to flourish ; and 
of late years not a few monarchs and sovereign princes have, within 
their respective dominions, lent their aid not only to rebuild but re- 
endow its chivabrous shrines. In Hungary and Bohemia the com- 
manderies there, the relics of the ancient (German Langue, have sub- 
sisted under the fostering auspices of the Austrian crown. In the 
circle of Bavaria, the Elector of which country, to get rid of diffi- 
culties and disputes after the loss of Malta, abolished the Order in 
his dominions, the Knights of St. John have taken root, and continue 
to 'enrol the chief nobility of that portion of the ancient Germanic 
empire. An abeyance of the Corporation in England for upwards of 
two and a half centuries did not prevent the two last monarchs of the 
House of Guelph from recognizing the Order, and wearing its cross. 
Charles the Tenth and Louis Fhillippe both re-extended to the 
Langues in France the protection of royalty which they had enjoyed 
before the Evolution. And further, in 1841, Ferdinand I., in com- 
pliance with the request of the BailU Candida, then Lieutenant of the 
Magistery, founded the Lombasdo-Venetian Priory, under Count 
Mittrowski, with permission to the Austrian nobleMe to make founda- 
tions in the same. 

Neither within the kingdoms, principalities, and states embraced by 
the ancient and venerable Langue op Italy, have the Knights of St. 
John been inactive within the period during which the office of Grand 
Master — dormant since the death of the Emperor Paul — ^has been dis- 

charged by deputy. In 1889, his Sicilian majesty, who in 1826 had 
suppressed the Order, renewed its existence within his kingdom. The 
year following, the Duchess of Parma, ex-Empress of the French, 
admitted the Order into her states, and re-established commanderies 
in its favour. Their highnesses the Dukes of Modena and Lucca, in 
1841, followed the example in their respective principalities. The 
same year, Pope Gregory XVI., who had re-established the Order 
within the papal territory, conferred on the knights resident at Eome 
the direction of the Military Hospital of that city ; whilst in the king- 
dom of Naples, the Order likewise enjoys the protection of royalty; the 
baillies, commanders, and knights there, in 1843, being presided over 
by the jCount Borgia, their Grand Prior. ^ 

General Chapters of the Order were anciently held once every five 
years, but afterwards they only took place every tenth year. Between 
the two last that were held, viz., in 1631, and 1776, upwards of a 
century and a half intervened. On this latter occasion the Members 
of Chapter who filled dignified posts were fifty-four in number, of 
whom the 25th, the 2Stb, and the 44th were the Grand Priors of 
England and Ireland, and the Bailiff of L'Aigle. The Turcopolier, the 
Conventual Bailiff of the Langue of England, was also |y*esent, that 
dignity having been annexed to the office of ^Seneschal to the Grand 
Master. , 

Since the date of the last General Chapter under a Grand Master, 
eighty years have elapsed, during which no Conventual Council, re- 
presenting the eight Langues, has existed. But during this inter- 
regnum in the government of the Order, its relations with the Chris- 
tian powers of Europe have been continually upheld. In 1815, its 
ambassadors (who at foreign courts took place of all those not deputed 
by kings) were — at London, the Commander Thuisy ; at Paris, the 
Bailli Ferretti ; at Vienna, the Grand Prior Colloredo ; at Rome, the 
Bailli Bonaccorsi ; in Portugal, the Bailli Carvcelho ; at Madrid, 
the Commander Paes ; at St. Petersburg, the Duke of Serra 

In 1843, the ministers of the Sovereign and Illustrious Order were— 
in Austria, the Bailli General, Count Khevenhuller ; at Parma, Count 
S. Vitale; in Modena, the Marquess Carandini; in Venice, the Grand 


I^rior Gappellari; in Milan, iheCoont Fcrretti; in Boli^nia, the Count 

During the same period the principal officers of the Order in 
France have been — M. M. the Count de Yilelle, President of the 
Council; Commander, the Marshal Macdonald, Duke of Tarento, 
Chief of the Langue of Provence; the Baron Nottred de St. Lys, 
Mandataire Qhiiral ; the Chevalier de Taillepied de la Garenne, 
Grand Secretary; the Duke de Damas; the Baron Treachi; the 
Marquess de Lamotte Lougo ; the Prince de Monaco, &c. In Her 
Britannic Majesty's dominions the Great Officers of the Soyereign 
Order are the Baillies and Commanders whose names are given at the 
commencement of this publication; whilst in the two Peninsular 
Langues of Arragon and Castile, the ministers have comprised some 
of the highest grandees of those kingdoms. 

The admissions into the Order during the present century include the 
names of King George IV. and King William IV. ; Charles X., of 
France ; the King of the Belgians ; the King of Naples ; the King 
of Sardinia; the Archduke Frederick; H.E.H. Prince Albert; H.B.H. 
the Duke of Modena; the Prince Don Miguel; Prince Charles of 
Bavaria; the Eeigning Duke of SaxeCoburgGotha; Prince Ernest of 
Hesse Philippsthal Barchfeld ; the Duke d'Ossuna ; Prince Metternich ; 
Prince Alexander Labanoff, and many other members of the highest 
families in Europe. 

From the period of the General Chapter of the French, Spanish, 
and Portuguese Langues under Prince Camille de Eohan, when the 
plenary Capitulaiy Commission was constituted which revived the 
Langue of England, the executive sovereignty of the Order may be 
. said to have been exercised exclusively by the six Langues of Auvergne, 
Provence, France, Arragon, England, and Castile. Within that time, 
indeed, the formality of electing a' Lieutenant of the Magistery has 
been kept up by a chapter of conventual knights, which at one time 
has been seated at Catania, at another period in Ferrara, and latterly 
at Bome. But the proceedings of this body, isolated as it is, and 
devoid of power as a representative Council of the eight Langues, 
have no weight with thbse preponderating administrative Coimcils of 
the Order in Western Europe that constitute virtually the sovereignty. 


and by whose fraternal support and •concurrence the acts adopted in 
this country for the legal and constitutional re-organization of the 
Laiigue of England have been made, and declared to be effectual and 

In the Articles of Convention for the latter purpose — ^which has been 
undoubtedly the moist beneficial step for the interests of the Sovereign 
Order, taken by its collective chivalry, since the loss of Malta — it is 
stipulated and provided that the adhesion of the Langues of Italy and 
Grermany shall be given to it at time and place convenient. Through- 
out the course of the intervening time, on various occasions the mem-r 
bers of the Executive Council of the Langue of England have pressed 
on their Continental confrlre% the importance of convoking a General 
Chapter for this and other purposes. Accordingly, such an assembly 
was arranged to have been held in. France in the close of 1841, at 
which time the Prince of Monaco, Due de Yalentinois, &c., had agreed 
to make his principality the seat of the Order, and himself to accept 
the vacant office of Grand Master. Biit the lamented death of his 
highness intervened to |»ostpone the summoning of the proposed 
Greneral Chapter, and the political convulsions which have since oc- 
curred, as well in France and Italy as other portions of Europe, have 
delayed a general meeting of the Knights of the eight Langues until 
the present time. 

Meanwhile, the task of recruiting the Chivalry of St. John has been 
diligently pursued within aU the ancient bounds of its Grand Priories 
and Langues ; and now it may tmly be said that at no period of the 
nineteenth century has the general aspect of European affairs been nearly 
so propitious for holding a GeneralChapter to re-consolidate the govern- 
ment of the Order in a Chrf Lieu^ as at this moment. The thunder- 
cloud of war which for a time has interrupted the long and cordial 
alliance of England and Eussia, no longer darkens the political horizon. 
An " entente cordiale" subsists between the imperial crowns of France 
and Britain, such as at no previous time has gladdened the neighbour- 
ing races of the two dominant nations of the West. Peace has again 
wreathed with her olive chaplet the brows of Turk and Muscovite, 
Frank and Hun. And what further remains, except this, that the 
Napoleon of a better epoch, whose " Empire is Tranquillity," shall add 


to the glories of bis manrelloas career the 4clat which would arise from 
his assisting to re-erect, in a permanent and independent Chef Lieu, 
that laurelled standard under whieh so many thousands of the noblest 
Frenchmen that ever lived have earned the praises and the admiration 
of Christian Europe. 

Nor is this a matter from which any reigning potentate will with- 
hold his aid who reflects that the honor and interests of an Order 
which ninites the splendid chivalry of ancient days to the enlightened 
feelings and high principles of the gentry of modem times, cannot be 
trampled upon anywhere in « Christendom with impunity. A basis 
which permits the members of the Order to obey the laws of any coun- 
try in which they may be seated, whilst they at the same time hold 
fast to the practice of the code of the Baptist, is a basis which, like 
the exercise of charity, is twice blessed. For what is that code ? It is 
the threefold comprehensive golden rule — " Fear towards Grod, honour 
towards the sovereign, love towards mankind." The Knights of St. 
.John were, and are, in all nations, not only a standing militia formed 
of the noblest blood and highest impulses o&the Christian world, but 
they were, and are, the embodiment of that active and generous prin- 
ciple in social ethics which, in all ages and climes, has been the real 
and true sotd of chivalry. That soul — ever antagonistic to immobi- 
lity and repression — which sees no wrong without seeking to redress 
it, which hears of no suffering without hastening to relieve it. " The 
** religion of chivalry," as has well been said, " is that of the motives 
** of the heart. It is lote, faith, hope, gratitude, joy, fidelity, honor, 
" mercy. It is the devotion of the mind and strength of the whole 
" man, of his soul and body, to the discharge of duty, and the sacrifice 
"of every selfish and dishonorable feeling." Of this religion the 
Chivalry of St. John have been, and ever will be, the elder 

From the long period during which the Sovereign Order of Knights 
Hospitallers has been in abeyance in the British islands, many 
suppose that the Fraternity is an institute of the Popedom. This, 
however, is as much an error as it is to suppose that the Knights of 
the Langue of England form, in England, fi foreign order of knight- 
hood, are allied in any shape or respect with Free Masonbt, or 


approach in character to Monastic foundations. The Order in Great 
Britain and Ireland is, even politically speaking, so much part and 
parcel of the ancient constitution of the monarchy, that its Grand 
Prior had seat and voice in the House of Lords amongst the Mag- 
nates ei Froceres Begni ; . and that high dignitary will again have seat 
and voice there whenever it may please the reigning sovereign to 
direct the necessary summons to be issued. Again, in religious mat- 
ters, as the Order of St. , John existed for centuries previous to the 
Eeformation, its chivahry were then collectively members of the uni- 
versal Catholic Church of Christ in the sense that all modern Chris- 
tians both understand and accept the term. And so it is at the pre- 
sent hour. For the ranks of the confraternity comprise Christians of the 
Protestant communion, of the Greek church, and of the Bomish faith. 
In England, Eussia, Poland, in Bavaria, and various other Germanic 
States, the preponderating body of the Knights are of the reformed 
persuasion. In Italy, France, Spain, &c., it is otherwise. But as a 
whole the Eaiights are champions of the Cross, not partisans of the 
Crosier where it is wielded as the weapon of a rival creed. They are 
Christian soldiers, not sectarian polemics. 

In 1823, when the Greek cause began to wear a prosperous aspect^ 
the Administrative Chapter, or Capitulary Commission, established 
under the presidency of Prince Camille de Bohan^ commenced a treaty 
for the cession of Sapienza and Cabressa, two islets on the western 
shore of the Morea, as a preliminary step to the re-occupation of 
Bhodes. Alter the recruitment of strength which the Order has had 
since that date, has not the time arrived when such an undertaking as 
this latter may be accomplished ? What at the present hour is the 
condition of Ehodes ? Bhodes, one of the most illustrious places among 
all the islands of the Mediterranean Sea, the intermediate point of the 
Eastern and Western trade, which combines the warmth of tropical 
regions with the genial temperature of a more northern zone ? '' The 
*' land and climate,'*, writes a recent traveller, " are glorious as ever ; 
*' but since 1522, when the Knights of St. John were driven from this 
*• last fortress of Christian chivalry in the Levant, the curse of desola- 
'* tion seems to have 'settled down on the place. We saw in the once 
^* celebrated harbour of Rhodes, only two smaU Greek ships or boats, 



" taking in water and fruit. The aspect of the city is sad enough. 
" The streets are ruinous, gloomy, and deserted ; but, like Malta, they 
" present many lasting monuments of the taste and en^gy of the 
'* Knights. The houses are built in the peculiar character of the 
** olden times, and in the gay Grecian style, mixed with the sombre 
"floiid of the GK)thic, with ornamented headings and borders of 
" flowers round the windows and along the walls, and arabesque trace- 
" ries carved in white marble, representing arms and armour, standards, 
" cuii^asses, gauntlets, greaves, quiyers« bows, hehnets, and the royal 
" arms of England, all executed with the greatest delicacy. Eveiy 
" house has its little paradise, where the orange, the lemon, and the 
*' graceful palm-tree preserve the oriental character of the whole." 

To re-erect the standard of the Baptist in this &ir " Venice of the 
East ;" to make the Order of St. John prominently instrumental to the 
civilization of Greece, Turkey, and Asia Minor ; to collect into one 
common focus, for high ends of philanthropy, men from all parts of 
Christendom embued with chivabrous feeling ; these are tasks which 
would well become generally the kings, princes, potentates, and 
nobility of Europe. Considering, however, that to rule the people of the 
earth, to spare the vanquished, and to beat down the proud, has been 
the mission of England in the most widely-sundered re^ons of the 
earth; that to these great deeds she superadds the higher gloiy of 
elevating the subject races wherever the career of conquest has placed 
them under her dominion ; and that in especial to her share has fallen 
that storied Bock which was last the scene of the grandeur, the utility, 
and power of the Order of St. John, does it not behoove its chivalry of 
the British Langue to take a foremost lead in any movement which 
may have for its issue a feat in every respect so grand and praise- 

Eear has been expressed by a late popular writer on the Order of 
St. John, that the powers of Europe will never, *' under the altered 
state of society, conceive it imperative either to restore their property, 
or reseat them in an independent jurisdiction." Should such, from a 
general departure from heroic and civil virtue, unhappily prove to be 
the case, still out of the embers of the Order will again rise its wonted 
fire, provided the knights of the various nations remain faithful to 


their vows to the Baptist, and to the bounden devoirs which they 
owe to themselves. But an older authority — one who it is to be hoped 
was of truer prophetic vision — has remarked, " Let no one imagine 
*' that the utility of the Order is temporary and partial; it is, on the 
*• contrary, both constant and general," And why should it be other- 
wise ? If, in the hackneyed phrase of the day, the " age of chivalry " 
is past, do not the claims of humanity remain ? Is there to be an end 
at any time upon earth of deeds of charity, of acts of philanthropy, of 
brotherly kindness between nation and nation, between man and man P 
If the Knights of St. John desire to have a permanent domicile, it is 
that their charity towards man may not rest *' at-Home," but go from 
thence eveiywhere abroad to engender those feelings of mutual amity 
and goodwill which will finally overcome aU petty differences, all 
opposing interests, all conflicting politics. Has then society through- 
out Christendom so fax extricated itself from the swaddling-bands 
of ignorance^ vice, poverty, oppression, wretchedness, and folly as 
to have need of no ever-abiding confederation for objects and de- 
signs such as are those of the Order of St. John P If this question 
cannot everywhere be answered in the affirmative, then let the crowned 
beads, the cabinet councils, and the executive governments of Europe 
collectively say of the institution-^*' Esxo Perpetua t " 

So far, however, from the great powers of Europe coalescing at any 
time to act perfidiously towards the Knights Hospitallebs, the pre- 
sent century was ushered in by his imperial majesty, Alexander I., 
giving (in March, 1801) by proclamation "a proof of his particular 
*' esteem and affection towards the sovereign Order of St. John of 
*' Jerusalem, by his declaring that he took the said Order under his im- 
** perial protection, and that as Protector of it he would employ every 
** possible care and attention to maintain it in all its rights, honors, 
" privileges, and possessions." The late Emperor Nicholas through- 
out his reign emulated the noble example of his two predecessors ; and 
the reigning Czar, his son, is known to be influenced by the same high 
. and generous regards towards the Order. The chivalrous sentiments 
of Frederick the Great — ^who, himself a Protestant, not only suffered 
the Catholic commanderies in Silesia to remain undisturbed, but also 
took under his ^specul protection the knights in the Electorate of 

c 2 


Brandenburg, knowing them to possess a spirit of emulation woi^hy 
of the most glorious ages of Chivalry, and promoted the yiews of his 
brother Friooe Ferdinand to the regency of an Order within his do- 
minions and Saxony, which '* was equally ancient and illustrious, enrer 
''renowned for its exploits, and venerable for the sanctity of its 
" institutions — " have swayed the practice of many celebrated Northern 
. princes, although not those of his own immediate blood ; who, as 
already said, have instead founded a $purious Order of St. John to 
strengthen their government, to prop up their grandeur, and support 
their weakness. Further, pari passu, with the steps prosecuted for 
the resuscitation of the Langue of England, Ferdinand the First, 
Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, Bohemia, Lombardy, Venice, 
and Galicia, &c., embraced the occasion of his splendid corona- 
tion at Milan, not only richly to endow the Order within his Lom- 
bardo-Yenetian dominions, but by a special decree to publish and 
declare for himself, his heirs, find successors, '"That whereas it was 
" an object of constant care to his late father, of illustrious memory, 
" to protect, and, as far as possible, to preserve undiminished the 
" Christian Order of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, which did 
" such good service to a large portion of Europe, and which suffered 
" so much by the course of events ; he being animated with the same 
" desire, and being convinced that the establishment of the said Order 
** must be serviceable and desirable to the nobility of his Lombardo- 
" Venetian kingdom, was pleased to allow of the erection of a special 
" Priory there, and to permit all such noble families as might be dis- 
'* posed, to make foundations in the same." 

With these historical facts, patent, and known to all men, it is not 
necessary to terminate this Synoptical Sketch with any observations 
calculated to countenance the supposition that a laboured apology is 
needed for the acts and doings of those in tl^ British islands by 
whose instnmientality the Cobpokation op the Pbiob and Co- 


with its hereditaments, privileges, and prerogatives, has been re-esta- 
blished. Had the members of the Executive Council of the Langue, who 
have most devoted their time, their attention, and their talents to this 
noble task, possessed no higher motive than merely the laudable desire to 


see the Gbntlemen of ancient blood, and ancestral quality, in the united 
monarchies of England, Scotland, and Ireland, once again stand on a 
par in sach *' jura hereditaria'' and " res inestimabileSy" as a^ those 
of chivalrous dignity — stars — ribands — ^badges — collars — &c., with 
their equals in rank aud influence, the Noblesse of the Continent, even 
that circumstance would of itself justly entitle them to the gratitude 
and approbation of aU within these triple realms whose gratitude and 
apprbbation are worthy of acceptance. It ought to be considered a 
proud thing by the free and independent British aristocracy, that men 
of their own body can do for them in such particulars what their com- 
peers, the highest nobles in Europe, cannot do for themselves without 
regal or imperial assistance. Nor is it a less distinguishing trait o£ 
British character, that, throughout the length and breadth of the 
dominions hooped together with the most resplendent diadem in Chris- 
tendom, men are to be found who regard the cross worn by Richard 
CoBur de Lion, and Guelpho, Duke of Bavaria, as a nobler emblem of 
family distinction than any which modem heraldry supplies. But 
apart altogether from secondary considerations such as these, the 
British Knights of St. John, as becomes men of elevated chivalrous 
sentiment, both entertain, and will strive to accomplish, through and 
by^means of the Hospitaller Order, that which will not only tend (to 
use the langui%e of its chief officers in 1798) " to prevent the destnic- 
•* tion of an institution equally ancient and illustrious, which has ever 
** been composed of the most chosen nobility, and which has rendered 
**such important services to the Christian world;" but also to re- 
make it an Order throughout all futurity, such as " shall contribute 
" to the advantage of Christendom in general, and of every state in 
" particular." 

But whilst so occupied, and whilst their joint exertions for such 
ends are encouraged by those substantial acts of grace and restitution 
which of late years many of the leading sovereigns in Christendom 
have rendered towards the preservation and aggrandizement of the 
sovereign Order of St. John, it well becomes its common chivalry as 
a body zealously to guard against the Order being made subservient 
to the will, the pleasure, or the caprice, of any particular state, govern- 
ment, cabinet, or prince. As in old monarchies the prejudice of an 


hereditaiy aristocracy is an attribute that grows, and cannot be ex- 
tinguisbed, so the prestige of the Order of tbe Baptist is an accom- 
plished property which cannot be taken away, unless by internal defec- 
tion, and a want of high-minded principle as regards matters of an 
external sort. No sentence of extermination has ever been pronounced 
against the Ohbvalieb Bbothkbs of St. John ; and any attempt to 
annihilate their existence in any portion of the globe would fail to 
have effect. But mere toleration of the Order by any government or 
state, which imderstands its own honor and dutj^, is not enough. The 
Hospitaller body was not created either to .be a passive or a useless 
institute. In aU ages and climes, in all political phases and changes, 
its mission is to be a forerunner and pioneer of that coming better 
civilization— of that wise, just, enterprising, and energetic population 
— ^which piecemeal will absorb the inert races of man both within and 
without the Christian pale. And as such it ought to find aid, encou* 
ragement, favour, and countenance from all enlightened and well dis- 
posed dominant powers. 

The Statutes of the Sovereign Order of St. John record that, '< Our 
*' Order has, ever since its foundation in Palestine, been endowed, 
*' augmented, and enriched by the liberality, assistance, and favor 
" of kings, princes, and devout persons, with lands, possessions, juris- 
** dictions, graces, privileges, and exemptions, that the Knights who 
*' shall make their profession in it, may adorn their Knighthoob 
''with a. true charity, the mother and solid foundation of all the 
^' graces ; may exercise the duties of holy Hospitality, with a sincere 
" attachment to the Christian Faith ; and that as soldiers of Jesns 
" Christ, seeking only to promote his glory, and to distinguish theni'- 
" selves by a course of virtue, temperance, and fortitude, they may 
" befriend humanity, preserve justice, and favor and support sudi as 
'* are oppressed." These principles have now been the guiding springs 
of an Order for 757 years, every member of which on his reception 
takes a vow similar in effect to that administered to the Protestant 
Knights admitted at Sonneberg in 1763, by the Ghrand Bailiff of 
Brandenburg, his Boyal Highness Prince Perdinand, of Prussia — ** I 
'• swear to be faithful and obedient to the Order; to do everything in 
"my power to contribute to ity glory, prosperity, and utility; to 


" combat everythiDg prejudicial to its well-being ; never to act con- 
" trary to its dignity, but to conduct myself always as a true knight, 
". that is to say, as a good Christian, and a man of honor." In conclu- 
sion, then, let it suffice to say that the Knights of the Langue of 
England — ^not content that there is no crowned personage In Europe on 
whose breast the star of the Order of St. John has not a prominent 
place, no royal blood which does not covet its honors and distinctions, 
no knight of whatever royal degree who does not esteem the White 
Cross in chief the proudest emblem of knightly rank on his ancestral 
escutcheon — only ** bide their time " to prove by acts and deeds of a 
meritorious description, that they do not again assert their place and 
rank amongst the EiaHT-BuANCHED chivalry of the Baptist, without 
a^iring to re-occupy their ancient illustrious status in such a manner 
as shall progressively make their Langue worthy of their great ances- 
tral fame, their proud historical reminiscences, and their known chival- 
rous predilections. To repair at home the dilapidations which a neglect 
of centuries has made within the Grand Priories of the British Isles ; 
to re-animate abroad the ranks of the Chivalry in every nook and 
comer of Christendom ; to stir up in all lands, nations, and tongues, 
a revival of Hospitallery feeling and Hospitallery actions, are 
objects before which that ambition which is of the meaner sort, pales 
its evanescent and ineffectual fire. Believing that for the attainment 
of such high and praiseworthy ends, no more auspicious era than this 
will ever present itself, the Executive Councii* of the Venerable 
Sixth Langue now invites the zealous co-operation, not only of the 
knightly confreres of the Sovereign Order wheresoever located, but 
also of all those gentlemen of heroic mind, personal eminence, and 
ancient nobility, in the United Kingdom, of whose renowned family 
banners throughout long centuries of the past, during which their 
ancestors never " bent nor bowed " to domestic tyranny or foreign 
power, it can most justly and tyuly be said — ^* Intaminatis fulgeni 


Jjondon, Sejftemder 16, 1856. 


€jiB SrniB Btti (HitwrttriiigB 




Cije General Cfiapter of tfje Sixrtj ILanfltte, 

Uth JUNE, 1841. 

" ^ur ^tiet fros ebrr since its Croidiiation been tniioforli, aupttntetr, 
anb ntrid^di bs ti|e Ubendits, narngtaxut, anlr fjailMmr oC Itinp, ^princes, 
atdi liebout l^etsons, imi^ laitbs, poswoions, jurtsdiicttons, jpraices, 
ifxMtsits, anil exemptions, tfyat t|^e Wini^ti lufio s|^ make tijeir 
liTofesBion in it, ma^ a)iom tfyeir 1Kmfli)ti|oii)i tnttf^ a tnte (STiiarits, tf^e 
mot^anli soUh fotnUiationofaS tfre jieaces ;—maq; exercise t|^e Hutfcs 
^ W^ JQuspitalitg, l0ttfy a sincere attacfjmtnt to tfre Cf^ristian M&ii^ ; 
an)! tfyat, as soDiiers of Jesus Cfprist, sceittng onl^ to promote f^ts 
gloi^y anb to bisttnguisf^ ti^emseUies bg a conrse of birtue, temperance, 
an)! fortitude, tfyes msi befrien)) f^tmanits, prrserbe justice, aitb faiiour 
ftitb support suc!^ as are oppresseb." 

i^tat. iSob* ®rti* of S^U Stifyx. 





Cfie Untflfjte of tlje lanflue of <Enfllatttr, 



U June, 1841. 


That Knighthood was not origiiially a part of the municipal con- 
stitution of any of the nations now forming the European monarchies, 
nor was the right to confer that honor an exclusive prerogative of their 
respective sovereigns : — but the title was a conventional dignity which 
pervaded Christendom, and« as such, could be conferred on persons of 
equestrian quality by any one who had himself been dubbed a Knight. 


That since the termination of the Peudal System, under which the 
families in the now united British monarchies that held lands of the 
Crown ^«' militare servitium had a prescriptive right to receive at 
majority the honor of Knighthood, a great variety of circumstances 
have conspired unduly to abate their natitial consideration and 


That the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, on its erection in Palestine 
and subsequent division into Eight Langues, having been declared by the 
Heads of the then Chrisjtian World to be a Soterbign Fbatebnitt, 


is a diivalious institution common to the whole Nohlewe of Christen- 
dom, possessing within itself all those attributes which are essential to 
sustain in eveiy age, and amongst ereiy monarchicaljcommunity, the 
pxesoriptiYe gentifilial rights and privileges of the aristocracy. 


That the ancient Noblesae forming the Sixth Langue, or Anglian 
branch, (which embraces all the native subjects of the British Grown), 
have an inherent and indefeasible right to participate with the ancient 
gentry of the seven Continental Langues, (which Langues embrace in 
their ^veral Grand Priories and Commanderies the population of the 
whole of the Christian monarchies of Europe), in the honors, advan- 
tages, and distinctions of the Illustrious and Sovereign Order of St. 
John of Jerusalem. 


That the British Branch, which comprehends the Qrand Priories in 
England, Scotland, and Ireland, has since the division of the Order 
into Eight nations or Langues, been a chivalrous institution existing 
within the British Islands, and is therefore wholly and essentially a 
national Institution, although during several reigns it remained in a 
state of abeyance or suspension. 


That the British Langue having been re-established in the Eeign of 
King George the Fourth, (who was himself a Knight of St. John), 
under Commissionary Powers similar to those under which the Vene- 
rable Langues of Provence, Auvergne, and France are now being re- 
organized; and further, the Boyal Charter of King PhiKp and Queen 
Mary incorporating the Order in this Kingdom having been formally 
revived by proceedings for that purpose taken before the Lord Chi^ 
Justice of England, in the Court of King's bench, on the 24th of Febru- 
ary, 1834, it is now competent for such members of the aristocracy of 
England, Scotland, and Lreland as can furnish £he quarterings of arms 
required by the statutes, to make foimdations in it. 

, VII. 

That, being convinced that the revival of the British Langue of the 
Sovereign Order of St. John of Jerusalem — ^the most esteemed and 
illustrious of all the chivalrous institutions of the middle ages — ^must be 
highly serviceable and agreeable to the Gentlemen of the United 
Kingdom, whether Peers, Baronets, or Esquires, as again placing them 
in this respect on a footing of equality with their compeersf, the 
Noblesse of the other Christian monarchies, the members forming the 


Executive Council shall be empowered to adopt, at such time as they 
shall deem it expedient, the proper and necessary steps to procure 
for the British Langue from Her Most Gracious Msgesty Queen 
Yictoria that royal favour and consideration which the Order enjoys 
under other Christian Powers ; and with which, under former reigns, 
the sixth Langue was honored by Her predecessors of glorious and 
imperishable memory. 


That until a General Chapter takes place of the Eight Langues 
forming the Sovereign Order, for the confirmation of the election of 
the Grand Master ad interim, and the due ratification of all proceedings 
had in the various Grand Priories under the unlimited powers reposed 
in the Grand Chancellor of the Order by three several General Chap- 
ters of the Langues of Provence, Auvergne, France, Arragon, and 
Castile, (bemg a majority of the Order), held on the 7th of February, 
1823, and on the 7th and 9th of April, 1826, this Langue shall con- 
tinue, by acts and resolutions in Council and General Chapters, to 
regulate its internal economy, elect Members, and exercise all the 
functions of a Corporate Body. 


That admission into the Order in this kingdom shall be whoUy 
irrespective of political feeling ; and whilst the British Langue — ^re- 
modelled so as to place it in accordance with the other aristocratic 
and chivalric institutions of the present day — ^is essentially Protestant 
in its character, differences in Christian faith will not of themselves 
form grounds of exclusion. Further, whilst the chivalry of St. John 
in the British Dominions will ever be actuated by the warmest senti- 
ments of loyalty and devotion to the reining Sovereign, and by 
fidelity to the British Constitution in Church and State, its objects 
will pre-eminently be the promotion of the Causp of Charity, and 
of those HosPiTALLBB Virtues which presided over the Order at its 
inception in Palestine. 





€\t ^mg|ts 0f ^mi ^qI^, 


1100 TO 1857. 

critics of tfie 0raia)i faster. 

The following is that given to him in all Public Acts :— 

" IkiOraHa, Domm Hoipitaijb Saneti Johatmu HkroKimiUani, MUitarisOrdinig 
" SaneH Sqnderi DomuUci^ ei Ordmu Saneti AsUhomi Vienneniit Magister 
** HuMiLiB, Pat^erumque Jetu CkriaH Cusroe." 

Letters were addressed to the Grand Blaster in the following terms : — 

AUa Sm AUeua JBrniimiurima U Oran-Mautro Fra N. 

All the Acts passed in the Chef Lien styled him, Ummmtmimo e Reffermdit- 
nmo 8igmr Oran-Mautro^ Fra N. 


The Ezecative Head, or resident principal Minister, of the Langae of England 
is the GsAVD Prior. But the highest dignitary of the English Langue, or 
GoBventoal PiUer, is the TuroofoIiIRB, who takes his title from having been 
the General of the Turcopoles, a body of Light Gavalry belonging to the 
Order, during the Wars in Palestine. 

The following are the distinctive titles of the Eight Pillen or Conventual 
BaiUies of the Order, viz. :— * 

1. Thb Great Cokmandbb ... fUngor of l^robence. 

2. The Marshal i^ttjBpte of antoflnr. 

3. Thb HespiTALLBR .... i^ngue of Jrimce. 

4. Thb Admiral ILangtte of Italg. 

6. Thb Great Cohsbrvatob - - - i^ngue of arragmu 

6. The Turoofolibr ... - ILanmie of (S^lsnll* 

7. The Great Bailli ... - fUngue of ffiermaiq|. 

8. Thb Great Chanobllob ... Eanguf of (ZTasttle. 

At the period of the loss of Malta the Knights resident at the Chef Lien 
numbered 332. De Boisgelin, in his History of the Order (1806), give Lists of 
the Knights received into the Venerable Langues of Provence, Auvergne, and 
France in 1788, which shews that they then respectively enrolled 300, 154, and 
179 members. The Priory of Aquitaine also enrolled HO knights, and the 
Priory of Champagne, 66, 


Illdd Postebitas ^mula calcar habet." 






FbomHOI to 1857. 

Lord JoBDAK Bbiset, who in 1101 founded the magnificent Prioiy, 
or House of the Hospital of St. John at Clerkenwell, which was 
then nigh to London. This palatial huilding (of which the Gate 
House still exists, as represented in the frontispiece), included 
the Priory Church which was consecrated by Heraclius, Patriarch 
of Jerusalem, when he visited England in 1185. King John 
resided in the Priory in 1212 ; and several of our Sovereigns 
held State Councils there. Until the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 
who succeeded to the Crown in 1558, it continued to be the 
Ckef Lieu of the Order in the British Islands ; at which time the 
Order possessed no less than fifty-three Commanderies in various 
counties of England and Wales. 

King Henb; I., of England ; who founded three Houses for the 
Knights Hospitallers of St. John. 

Gebabo, the name of this Knight, *' OerardOy Milite Joanne de 



Otifm^** appears as one of the witnesses to the Charter of 
Waldive, the son of Cospatric, to Helius Dundas. The Charter 
has no date, hut it must have heen granted in the reign of King 
Alexander I, of Scotland, previous to the year 1122. As the 
fiimilj of Dundas was one of the most eminent in Linlithgowshire, 
(which became the chief seat of the Knights Hospitallers in 
Scotland) Gerard*s name occurring in this Charter, with other 
great landowners of the county, is presumptive evidence that the 
Order had then a territorial footing in Scotland. 

King Datii) I., of Scotland. This great monarch, the founder of so 
many noble religious edifices in his kingdom, established the 
Sacred Preceptory of the Order of St. John at Torphichen in 
Linlithgowshire, which continued to be the chief seat of the 
Knights Hospitallers in Scotland, during the 12th, 13th, 14th, 
15th, and 16th Centuries. In the last year of his reign, 1153, by 
a Royal Charter, he ratified and confirmed to the Preceptor and 
his brethren all their possessions, privileges, and exemptions. 
It would appear from their earliest introduction into Scotland, 
the Religious Military Orders found great favour with this Prince, 
for the author of the ancient Book of Cupar records, that : — 
** SoMchti David depraclara liUUia TempU Hieroaolomitani optimoM 
**fraire9 seeum retinetu, eon diehw et noeiibuM morum auorum feeii 
" euiiode*:* 

King Malcom IV., of Scotland, who reigned from 1153 to 1165, 
gave to the Knights Hospitallers, by two Royal Charters, many 
donations of land, and by a third Charter he incorporated their 
whole possessions into a barony, free of all courts, customs, 
tolls, kc, 

Gilbert de Clabe, the renowned " Strong-bow," Earl of Pembroke, 
Founder cir. 1174 of the Priory of St. John, at Kilmainham 
near Dublin, which, after the suppression of the Knights Templars, 
in 1313, became the chief seat of the Order in Ireland. He was,. 
jurB uxorUy Kreo of Leinsteb, having married Eva sole daughter 
and heiress of Dermot King of that Province. 

King William The Lion of Scotland, who reigned from 1165 to 
1214. He enlarged the foundations made to the Order by his 
brother and grandfather. During the half-century reign of this 
warlike prince. Pope Lucius III preached another crusade against 
the infidels ; and King Henry II of England assigned 42,000 
marks of silver, and 500 marks of gold in aid of the Holy cause, 

Gabnieb de Nafoli, Grand Prior of England, at the memorable 
period when the Langue was visited by the Grand Master de 
Molins, accompanied by Heraclius, Patriarch of Jerusalem. He 


was notable in feats of anns ; and was the only person of distinction 
who escaped captivity or death at the carnage by Saladin and his 
Saracens at Tiberias, in 1187, when the blood of 30,000 
Christian soldiers ran in streamlets down the rocks. The same 
year he was elected Gband Master of the Order, being the 
eleventh who held that supreme dignity. At this period the 
Knights of St. John possessed about 19,000 manors. 

WiiJLiAM called the "Great Earl," Earl Marshal of England, 
Earl of Pembroke, &c., Founder, cir. 1 196, of the Commandery of 
St. John, and St. Bridget at Wexford, which was the Grand 
Priory of Ireland until 1313. He was, jure uxoris. Earl of 
Leinster, having married Isabel, sole child of Gilbert, Earl of 
Pembroke, and the Princess Eva his wife, heiress of Dermot, 
King of Leinster. He carried the sword before Eighard Gosur 
de Lion at his Coronation. 

Sir Walter db Lac7, Lord of Midie, Founder in the 12th Century, 
of the Commandery of St. John Kilmainham-beg, in the Liberty 
of Meath, Ireland. 

Sing Henry II., of England : this Sovereign, besides extending the 
possessions of the Order, gave in 1180 to Gamier de Neapoli, 
Grand Prior of St. John in England, the lands and houses of the 
Canons of Buckland, in Somersetshire, for the endowment of a 
Priory of Sister Hospitallers for the benefit of the Order of St. 
John, where they remained until the dissolution of the Beligious 
Houses in 1540. This Crusader King was also the founder in 
Ireland of the Commandery of St. Congal near Clontarf, in the 
Grand Priory of Ireland. 

Sir Gilbert db Borard, Founder in the 12th Century of the 
Commandery of St. John, at Killergy, in the county of Carlow, 
in Ireland. 

Sir Hugh de Laoy, Founder in the 12th Century of the Com- 
mandery of St. John the Baptist, in the Territory of Ardes, 
county of Down, Ireland. 

William de Burgo, son of Aldelin, Dapifer to Henry II, whose 
wife Juliana, in the year 1185, gave the whole of the parish and 
manor of Little Mapplestead, in the county of Essex (including 
the Round Church, the only one in England, except that of the 
Temple in London), to the Knights Hospitallers of St. John. To this 
Commandery there were no less than five hundred and eighty-five 
grants of land and other property from persons residing in 
different parts of the country. 

BoBSRT DE Ver, Earl of Oxford, who by charter in the 12th 
Century, bestowed lands upon the Order. 


Lord OsBBBT DB Oladfem, who, in the 13ih Gentory, granted bj 
charter, lands to the Order. 

BiCHABD, Oofur de LUm^ King of England : who with Philip of France 
led, in 1101, an allied army of 100,000 men to Palestine, com- 
prising '* the noblest youths of Christendom ; whose splendid tents, 
glittering weapons, and gorgeous cognizances, displayed every 
variety of national and individual peculiarity." During this 
Crusade (the drd), the Knights Hopitallers, whose ranks were 
augmented by the entrance of many noble persons from the West, 
sided with ^ng Richard and Guy le Brun, Count of Lusignan, 
who. Jure tworw, was King of Jerusalem. 

WiLLUM DS FsBBEBS, EstI of FerTors, who took the Cross, and 
died in the Holy Land. 

Sir Waltbb Levingb, a soldier of the White Cross, and the com- 
panion in-arms of Richard Cieur Jk Liorn. 

The EABii OF Chsstbb, who took the Cross, and was at the seige of 

Acre, 1191< 
WiLLUM Longtpeij the famous Earl of Salisbury, natural son of 

King Henry II. Was at the seige of Acre with his half-brother 

Richard the Lion-hearted. 

Sir HjfiNBY Bayntun, Knight of St. John, second son of Sir Henry 
Bayntun, Knight Marshal to King Henry II., who was slain in 
Bretagne, laOl. 

Sir MoBiOB FiTzeERALD, Founder in the Idth Century of the 
three Commanderies of Kilbegs, Kilheel, and Tully, in the county 
of Kildare, in Ireland. 

King Hekbt III., of England, In his reign the 7th Crusade was 
determined upon at a council held at Westminster, in 1229, 
attended by the Archbishops, Bishops, Priors, Knigbts 
Hospitallebs, and others, when the King allowed a tenth to be 
raised throughout his dominions towards the relief of the Holy 
Land. On the return of the English Crusaders, the Knights 
Hospitallers, on the 3rd of October, 1247, presented His Majesty 
with a beautiful chrystaline vase, containing a portion of the 
blood of Our Saviour. The Temple Church, first dedicated 
by the Patriarch Heraclius in 1185, was re-dedicated in 1240 (at 
which time the building was finished), in the presence of King 
Henry III., and many of the nobility, who after the solemnity 
partook of a sumptuous repast at the expense of the Hospitallers. 

William le Bbuk, Lord of Valence in France, and Earl of 
Pembroke : he was half-brother of King Henry III., and was 
sprung from the Le Bbuns, Lords and Counts of Poictou, 


La Marche, Angoaleme, Gouci, Imsignan'-of which latter branch 
were the Le Bruns, who for three centuries and a half were Kings 
of Jerasalem, Cjpros, and Armenia. 

King Alexander II., of Scotland, by Charter dated at Edinburgh, 
drd day of June, and 17th year of his reign (1231), confirmed, 
** Deo, et Sancto Johanni ei Fratribug ffotpiiiUis de Torphiphyn'* all 
donations of lands and possessions, liberties, customs, &c , 
ordaining that the same should subsist in perpetuity for the love 
of God, and for the souls of his ancestors and successors. 

Sir Alexander de St. Helens, Founder in the I3th Century of 
the Commandery of Home, in the county of Cork, Ireland. 

Theodore, Grand Prior of England. The forces in Palestine of 
the Latin Christians having been greatly reduced, the Grand 
Master de Comps, in 1237, ordered large succours from the West ; 
and, among others, there went from the Grand Prioxy at 
Clerkenwell, headed by their Prior, and with the Banner of 
Saint John unfurled, 300 Knights, and a considerable body 
of armed stipendiaries. Theodore and his chivalry together 
with Prince Richard (created Earl of Cornwall, and after- 
wards elected King of the Romans and Almaine), Simon de 
Monfort, Earl of Leicester, and William Longspee, son of the 
Earl of Salisbury, set sail from Dover, and crossing France, via 
Marseilles, proceeded to Jaffa, where the Sultan of Egypt offered 
terms of peace, which were accepted, the greater part of the Holy 
Land being given up to the Christians. 

Archibald, Grand Preceptor of Scotland, in the time of King 
Alexander II. In a Charter of Prince Alexander, Great Steward 
of Scotland, dated 1252, mention occurs of ^* uirckibaldui 
MajUter de TorpMehen." The originally small foundation of 
King David I., had by this time been so augmented by additional 
lands, that the territory of the Order was erected into the 
Regality and Lordship of St. John, and Preceptorie of Torphichen. 

King Alexander III. of Scotland, son of Alexander II. by Mary 
his Queen, daughter of Ingleram le Brun, Sienr de Couci. In 
1266, he granted a charter to the Knights of St. John in Scot- 
land, confirming all their former rights, privileges, and exemp- 
tions, especially the payment of tithes. During this King's reign, 
the Order was under the vigorous rule of Hugh de Revel, the 
I9th Grand Master. 

Prince Edward Plantagenet (afterwards King Edward L). In 
1271, he assumed the Cross, alongst with King Louis IX., of 
France, in a new Crusade — the 9th and last. In this enterprise, 
he had united with him his brother Edmund Crouchback, Earl 


of Lancaster, the Kings of Sicily, Naples, Arragon, and Portagal, 
together with many English and Scottish Knights. 

Alxxandxb dx Wbllxs, whose name occurs amongst the barons 
and others who swore fealty to King Edward I., of England, in 
the Chapel of Edinburgh Castle, July 1291, as follows: — 
**Alex€mder, Prior HotpitalU Sancii JohanmU Jerutalomitani in 
Scotia** And again, in the Raguel Roll, sworn at Berwick, 28th 
August, 1296, stands <* Frere Alisaundre de Wdh, Oardeyn del 
Hoipital de Seini Jokan de JerueaUm en Heoee** This Preceptor 
was probably one of the ancient family of De Welles, Lord of 
Welles, in the county of Lincoln. He was slain at the Battle of 
Falkirk, fought on the 22nd of July, 1 298. For some months 
previous Sir William Wallace had made the Preceptory of Tor- 
phichen the head quarters of his army. At this same period the 
Military Orders were compelled to leaye the Holy Land, and the 
brave Hospitallers retired to Cyprus, where they were kindly 
received and entertained by King Henry (Le Brun) II. 

Badulph de Lindesay, Great Preceptor of Scotland after the death 
of DE Welles. He ruled the Order from the period of the fiatal 
fight at Falkirk (1298) when the star of Wallace waned, until after 
the battle of Bannockbum when King Robert Bruce firmly 
established his throne. During this interval by a Canon of the 
Council of Vienna, and a bull of Pope Clement VIL, the whole 
priories and lands of the Knights Templars in Scotland were 
bestowed on the Knights of St. John. These comprised Temple 
on the South Esk, Balantradoch in Mid-Lothian, Aboyne and 
Tulloch in Aberdeenshire, Oggerstoune in Stirlingslure, St. 
Germains in East Lothian, Inchynan in Renfrewshire, Derval in 
Ayrshire, Dinwoodie in Annandale, Red-Abbey-Sted in Roxburg- 
shire, and Temple Listen in West Lothian. This Preceptor was 
one of the illustrious House of Lindsay Earls of Crawford, 
and Premier Earls of Scotland. 

William de Tothale, " Prior Sac. Domus Hosp. Sti Johnnes de 
Jerusalem Anglic, 1801." He flourished in the reigns of King 
Edward I. and King Edward 11. , and was summoned to their 
Parliaments as first Baron of the Realm. In bis grand priorate 
Rhodes was conquered on the 5 th August, 1310, by Fulk db 
YiLLABET the 24th Grand Master, and the Templar Order was 
suppressed, 1313 : when their immense estates in every province 
of England and Wales were bestowed upon the Knights of St. John. 
The number of Knights Templars imprisoned in the British Isles 
at the time of their persecution was about 250. Throughout 
Christendom they then numbered about 15,000. 

King Edward II. of England. His Mtyesty by an Order in Coun- 


oil, 13th February, 1807, suppressed the Order of the Templars 
within his dominions; and by Letters Patent, 17, Edw. II., 
the whole of their ** houses, churches, manors, lands, rents, or 
other possessions whatsoever " in England, Ireland, and Wales, 
were transferred to the Knights Hospitallers. 

William Mobb, Grand Preceptor of the Order of St. John in Scot- 
land. He is supposed to have flourishd in the reign of King 
David II. He granted, by a charter without date, part of the 
Temple lands of Cowanston in the county of Lanark, to Adam 
Fakok. In this charter, which was granted *' eommuni connlio et 
tusenm Fratrum noitrorumy' he is styled ** Wtllelmui More, Oustot 
ffospitalU Sancti Johanmei de Torpkeyn.'* The witnesses to the 
charter, which had appended to it the seal of the keeper, were 
*' Dominis Mauricio de Morauia tunc Yice-comite de Clidisdale, 
Th«ma Sumiruile, Domino de Camwythe, Militibus, Johanne 
Chancelar, Eoberto de le More, Thoma Were, Willelmo de Brun- 
ton, Alano de Ledelle, et multis aliis." 

RoBEBT DE CuLTEE, ProcuMitor of the Hospital of St. John of 
Torphichen about the time of King David 11. , as such he is 
named in the charter of William More, Preceptor of the Order 
in Scotland, to Adam Pakok of the Temple Lands of Cowanston. 

Sir Giles de Abgintine ; an illustrious Hospitaller, and one of the 
most redoubted champions of the Cross in the latter days of Chris- 
tian dominion in the Holy Land. He fought and fell under the 
banner of England at the memorable battle of Bannockbum, 1314, 
having first rescued the English monarch, Edward II., from the 
perils of that great fight. 

BoBEBT THE Bbuce, King of Scotland. During the persecution of 
the Knights Templars, which extended from October 1807 to 
May 1312, this illustrious king was doing battle for his crown 
and the liberty of the Scottish nation. By a canon of the Council 
of Vienna and a Bull of Pope Clement VII., published in the 
latter year, the members of the Templar fraternity were per- 
mitted to enter the Order of the Hospital, which everywhere 
throughout Christendom was enriched with their vast possessions. 
Two years later, in 1314, the crowning victory at Bannockburn 
placed Bbuce firmly on the throne of Scotland ; and for the 
services which the combined Hospitaller and Templar Chivalry 
rendered on that memorable occasion, King Eobert, during the 
latter portion of his reign, conferred many tokens of his royal favor 
upon the body. 

John Buibbus ruled the Order in England as Grand Prior, 
early in the 14th Century. During his time, in addition to the 
wealth which the Order acquired by the suppression of the 


Knights Templars, the eonquest of Rhodes was effected bj Folk 
de Yillaret, the 24th Grand Master. 

Thomas lb Abcheb, Grand Prior of England. Under him 
the affiurs of the Langue were so badlj administered that he 
resigned his office, cir. 1329. 

Leonard db Tibbbtis, Grand Prior of the Order in England, in 
the early part of the reign of Edward III. He had previously 
been Prior of Venice, and, being a man of great tact and energy, 
was sent by the Grand Master Villeneave to England as 
Commissioner, with a Tiew to redressing the affairs of the Order. 
On the resigoation of Prior Thomas L'Archer, he was unani« 
mousely elected in his stead. M. 1320. 

Philip de Thahe, Grand Prior of England, tei/^. Edward III. 
In 1338 he made a Beport to the Grand Master Elyan de 
Villeneave, which has recently been printed by the Camden 
Society. Under him, in 1346, the Temple buildings were leased 
to the predecessors of the Honourable Law Societies of tlie 
Inner and Middle Temple. 

Stephen Pebbott, and Eicard Penrice, ** two magnates of Wales," 
who acted cir. 1340, as maintainors of the bailiwick of Slebech, 
in Pembrokeshire. 

Sir William de Langfobd, who fl. cir. 1338. 

William de Hambelton, Preceptor of Maltby, in Lincolnshire, 
cir. 1338. 

Sir HoBEBT LuTTBELL, who fl. cir. 1338. 

Sir William Bbex, who fl. cir. 1838. 

Sir John Payely, Grand Prior of England, cir. 1361. During his 
priorate de Pins and Beranger were Grand Masters. Under 
the latter the Navy of the Order and that of Peter le Brun, 
King of Cyprus, sailed in an expedition against Egypt, and took 

Bobbbt d*ALBi, Grand Prior of England. He was in the suit 
of the Grand Master Heredia when he conducted Pope Gregory 
XI. in 1377, from Avignon to Civita Vecchia. 

Sir Eobebt Hales, Grand Prior of England. Under his priorate 
the English Hospitallers sutained a very severe loss by the des- 
truction in 1381 of their Chief Priory at Clerkenwell by fire during 
the insurrection of Wat Tyler. " This building, in its widely 
varied decorations, both internally and externally, is said to have 
contained specimens of the arts both of Europe and Asia, together 
vrith a collection of books and rarities, the loss of which in a less 
turbulent age, would have been a theme for national lamentation." 


The Priory burned for eight days, and the Prior's residence at 
Highbury was also destroyed. The Grand Prior himself also lost 
his life ; and in the Patent of King James II. to his descendant 
Sir Edward Hales, creating him Earlof Tenderden, special mention 
is made of the great merit of «* Robert Hales, formerly Lobd High 
"TsEASUBEB of our Kingdom of England, and Pbiob of the 
'* HosPiTAii, who upon account of a most prudent advice which he 
" gave to our predecessor King Eichard II., had on a popular 
" sedition, by the fury of the mob, his head struck o£f." 

Sir John db Radyngton, Grand Prior of England. There is a 
memorandum that on the 23rd of September, 1383, this Prior, 
swore fealty to King Richard II. ; and at the same time he en- 
joined the King not to allow his obedience and loyalty to prejudice 
in future the ancient privileges of the Order to which he 

Sir Walteb Clopton, of Hadley, in Suffolk, Knight of Rhodes, 
fl. cir. 1390. 

Sir Walteb Gbendon, Grand Prior of England at the close of the 
14th century. In his time the Chef Lieu, at Rhodes, constantly 
boasted of a thousand warriors. 

Sir Nicholas de Assheton, Knight of St John, brother of Sir 
John de Assheton, Lord of Middleton, in the county of Lancas- 
ter, who was a made a Knight of the Bath at the Coronation of 
King Henry IV. 

Sir Thomas Sequipont, Turcopolier in the year 1410, and Com- 
mander of Cyprus. He held these appointments under the Grand 
Master de Naillac, who for 26 years ruled the Order with con- 

. summate prudence and valour. 

King James I. of Scotland, who granted letters of administration 
under the Great Seal, 14th October, 1421, in favour of Thomas 
Gudwyn and John Lidall, to all the lands and possessions of the 
Hospital of St. John within his Kingdom. 

Sir William Hulles, Grand Prior of England, cir. 1428. At this 
time a General Chapter was held at Rhodes, when many useful 
regulations were made. 

Sir William Stbadling, of St. Donats, Somersetshire, Knight of 
St. John, fl. cir. 1430. 

Sir Edwabd Stbadling, who accompanied his father to the Holy 
Sepulchre, and was also with him made a Knight of the Order 
of St. John. He married Jane, grand-daughter of John of 
Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster. 


Sir HcNBT LiTiNasTOM, chief of the Order ia Scotland, and 
Pbbgeptob of Tobphiohbn, in the reign of King James II., 
daring whose minority Sir Alan Livingston, was Regent of the 
Kingdom. This Preceptor was one of the great and powerful 
family of Liringston, three hranches of which were Viscounts 
£[iu9TTH, Eabls of Gallsmdbb, and Eabls of Linlithgow. He 
died cir. 1463. 

King James II. of Scotland, who reigned from 1428 to 1460, con- 
ferred on the Knights Hospitallers additional lands, and con- 
firmed the henefactions of former monarchs. 

Sir William Daunat, Turoopolier in the year 1453. About this 
time the Sultan Mohammed II. summoned Rhodes to acknowledge 
itself his vassal. 

Sir RoBBBT Bettll, Grand Prior of England ; of whom notices 
occur in 1446 and 1452. During this time the City of Con- 
stantinople was taken by the Sultan Mohammed II., siter which 
be equipped a mighty fleet for the purpose of laying waste the 
whole principality of Rhodes. Troubles also broke out in Cyprus, 
where the Order had a valuable commandery. 

King James III. of Scotland, who reigned from 1460 to 1488, 
confirmed by Charter the possessions, rights, and privileges of the 
Order, and augmented the same. 

Sir Patbiok Skouoall, Knight Commendator of the Order of St. 
John of Jerusalem in Scotland, and Masteb of Tobfhichen, so 
designated in a Charter to Temple lands, bearing date 20th 
October, 1560. 

Sir RoBEfiT Long, Turcopolier, in the year 1466. He served under 
the Grand Master Zacosto, who was honored with the style of 
^* ExeeUmHmauu;' in consideration of his piety, his charity, and 
his capacity for government. 

Sir William Knolls, Grand Preceptor of Scotland. He was 
ordained at Rhodes, cir. 1463, by the Grand Master Zacosta, and 
he filled his office for nearly fifty years. He was Lord Treasurer 
of Scotland, and King James IV. raised him to the peerage 
dignity of Lobd Saint Johns ; which title devolved upon each of 
his successors in office till the Reformation. He was slain at 
Flodden, llth September, 1513. 

Sir John Lanostbotheb, Grand Prior of England. Was bearer of 
a letter from the Grand Master de Lastic to King Henry VI. 
He sided with the House of Lancaster during '* the quarrels of the 
red and white rose f and being taken prisoner at the battle of 
Tewkesbury, 1471, wa3 put to death in cold blood, by order of 
King Edward IV. 


Sir John Weston, Turcopolier in the year 1470, and General of 
the Grallejs. He filled this dignity under Ursini the STth Grand 

Sir Thomas Delamebe, Knight of the Holy Sepulchre, and High 
Sheriff of Berkshire in 1473. 

Sir Henry Stradling, of St. Donate, Somersetshire, who, like his 
father and grandfather, visited Jerusalem, and was the third chief 
of his ancient family, who weis a Knight of St. John. He died in 
the Isle of Cyprus, cir. 1475. 

Sir John Kendall Turcopolier in the year 1477, and Grand Prior 
of England 1490. Under the Grand Master D'Aubusson, called 
" the Buckler of Christendom," the Sultan Mohammed attacked 
Khodes in 1480, with a fleet of 160 vessels, and land forces 
exceeding 80,000 men ; but, after a seige of 89 days, he was 
repulsed, 9000 Turks being slain, and 15,000 wounded. This 
glorious defence was commemorated by building three churches at 
Ehodes. Under this great Chief, the Order of St. John had 
incorporated with it the two minor Orders of the Holy Sepulchre 
and Saint Anthony. 

Sir James Keating, Grand Prior of Ireland. He was deprived of 
his priory for not going to the relief of Rhodes, beseiged 1480. 

Sir Marmaduke Lumlet, Grand Prior of Ireland, cir. 1488. 

King James IV. of Scotland, who by a Charter, dated Edinburgh, 
19th October, 1488, confirmed to the Hospital of Jerusalem and 
brethren thereof of the Temple of Soloman, all the possessions, 
rights, liberties, &c., which had been conferred on the combined 
Fraternity by his royal predecessors. This chivalrous monarch 
erected the barony and regality of Torphichen into a temporal 
Lordship, and ordained that, virtute officii, the successive Precep- 
tors should be Peers of Parliament by the name and title of Lord 
Saint Johns. 

Sir Thomas Newport, Bailli de Aquila, in the year 1600. He 
commanded a vessel with succours from England, which was cast 
away on her voyage to Khodes during the seige, in 1622. 

King Henry VII. of England, who, in 1602, was elected "Pbo- 
tector of the Knights of Ehodes," in consequence of his 
writing a letter to the Pope in answer to a brief sent from Rome, 
in which the Pontiff earnestly besought him to engage in war 
against the Turks. In his letter King Henry declares that, " he 
" will be as redieto the defense of the Christen Faithe as any 
'* Prince cristened, and in this behalf nother to spare goods, 
" richesse, nor men ; nor yet his own propre person yf it be 
" nede." 


Sir Thoicas Doowba, Gnuid Prior of England from 1504 to 1528. 
He pat the finwhing touches to the Grand Prioiy at Clerkenwell, 
which had been burnt down in 1381, and which successire Priors, 
during the interval of 333 years, had rebuilt vdth more than its pris- 
tine grandeur. Camden speaking of, as it existed in the beginning of 
the 16th centurj, sajs — " This House, increased to the size of a 
pakce, had a beautiful Church with a tower carried up to such a 
neight as to be a singular ornament to the City.** At a Chapter 
held there on the 11th of January 1514, a lease was granted to 
Cardinal Wolsey of the manor of Hampton, for the site of the 
palace which he erected there. In 1531 Docwra was a candidate 
for the Office of Grand Master. He possessed considerable 
abilities, great experience in diplomacy, and had moreoyer a 
princely revenue to recommend him ; but the great preponder- 
ance of French influence secured the election of L*Islb Adax. 
He survived the loss of Rhodes five years. 

Sir RoBKBT Dakiel, Turcopolier, in the year 1606. In his time 
D*Amboise, the S9th Grand Master, received from the French 
King the sword which St. Louis had worn in the crusades. 

Sir George Dukdas, 3nd Lord St Johns, and Grand Preceptor 
of Scotland, elected 1513. The signature, " Q. Lord Saneii»kany9y*^ 
appears in tlie notarial copy of the Engagement of the Scottish 
Lords to the Queen 1534. He was one of the most accomplished 
scholars and cavaliers of his time. His school-fellow Hector 
Boece thus describes him : — *' Geobqius Dundas, Grecas atque 
" Latinas literas opprime Doctus, Equitum Hierosolymitanorum 
^' intra Scotorum regnum Magistratum, multo sudore (superatis 
'' emulis) postea adeptus.** 

John LoBD Fleminq, Bailli of the lands of Temple Denny, &c.« 
within the Sheriffdom of Sterling, by commission of George Lord 
St. Johns, dated 14th June, 1515. 

Sir John Buck, Grand Cross and Turcopolier :— ^ne of the Ad- 
jutants General at the famous Seige of Rhodes, by the Sultan 
SoLTHAN. He was killed on the 1 7th of September, 1533, at the 
head of the English Knights, in a sortie which Mustapha made 
against the English Bastion, at the head of five battalions. In 
this encounter t£e Turks were repulsed, with a loss of 3000 slain. 
This brave Knight died in defence of the then Chef Lieu of the 
Order ; a spot, which, to this day, is venerated in the East as 
*' worthy of being held for ever holy and illustrious in the 
estimation of mankind.** 

Sir WiiJJAH Oadzon, who at the famous Seige of Rhodes, 1533, 
commanded the fbrces of the Grand Master in the Quarter of 


Sir Albam Pole, of a distinguished Derbyshire Family. He was 
Commander of mount St. John in 1520. Afterwards held high 
office in the Order, and was Bailli de AquilH. 

Sib Nicholas Husset, who at the seige of Ehodes by the Sultan 
Solyman in 1522, was as one of the most redoubted Knights 
selected by the Grand Master LIsle Adam to defend the Bastion 
of England. The terrible armament of Solyman, consisting of 
400 sail with 140,000 soldiers, and 600,000 serfs invested 
Ehodes on the 26th June, 1522. The capitulation took place, 
after a heroic defence of six months, on the 17th December, 

Sir Nicholas Wbston, Turcopolier in the year 1523. 

Sir John Babinoton, Bailli de Aquila. He demitted in 1526, the 
office of Grand Prior of Ireland. • • 

Sir John Bansov, Turcopolier, in 1526, when the grand Master 
L'Isle Adam visited England. At the request of King Henry 
VIII, he was, in consequence of his good services in Ireland, 
made Grand Prior of that country. 

Sir John Mobysteyn, 1526, Chancellor of the Provincial Chapter 
of the English Langue. 

Sir John Riquitan, Grand Prior of Ireland 1630. On the 24th 
March, 1630, the Emperor Charles V. granted to the Order the 
isles of Malta, Goza, &o. 

Sir Nicholas Babington, Turcopolier, Commander de Divemar in 

Sir Roger Boydel, Turcopolier in 1633. The year following, on 
2l8t August, 1534, expired LIlse Adau, the most illustrious 
Grand Master the Order ever possessed. 

Sir Walteb Lindsat, 3rd Lord Saint Johns, and principal Preceptor 
of Scotland. He was a knight of great reputation, and was Justice 
General of Scotland in the reign of King James V. He died in 

Sir William Weston, Grand Prior of England, temp. Henry VIII. 
By an Act passed, 1533, it was made lawful for "Viscounts, 
the Pryour of Seint John's Jerusalem, and Barons to wear in 
their duhlettes or sleveless coates, clothe of golde, silver, or tynsel." 
The Order, comprising the Chivalry of England, having sided 
vdth the Pope in discountenancing the divorcement of Queen 
Catherine, a bloody persecution was commenced against the 
Knights in 1534, which continued until April, 1540, when an 


Act passed the Legislature vesting in the Crown all their posses- 
sionSi castles, manors, churches, hooses, &e. On Ascension Day, 
in the latter year, the Lord Prior died of grief; and was bnried 
in the Chancel of St. James's Church, Clerkenwell, where an altar- 
tomb in the architectural style of the age, representing him as an 
emaciated figure lying upon a winding sheet, was erected over his 
remains. Pensions out of the revenue of the House at Clerken- 
well were granted to the Lord Prior and other Knights to the 
amount of £2,870 per annum. The site and precincts of the 
Priory were granted to John Lord Lisle for his services as High 
Admiral. Henry VIII. died in 1647, and shortly afterwards 
the Church of St. John, with its magnificent spire, was blown 
up, and the materials employed by the Lord Protector Somerset 
in building Somerset House. 

Sir David Ookson, Lieutenant of the Turcopolier at Malta, 1533. 
[For list of 101 ^ghts of the Langue of England who lived 
about the middle of the 16th century, see *' Note* and Queries" 
No. 200, Aug. 27, 1858.] 

Sir Clbkemt West, Turcopolier. On the death of Perrin du Point, 
the forty-fourth Grand Master in 1584, he was chosen Regent 
of the Order under his successor, which honour had never before 
been given to any English knight. 

Sir HioRASD Bell, one of the knights who left their country at the 
time of the persecution, and sought an asylum at the Chtf Lieu, 
in Malta, 1584. 

Sir John Noel, another knight who did the same. 

The Commander Inolet, one of the knights who perished on the 
scaffold during the persecution under King Henry VIII., in 1684. 

Sir Mabhadukb Bowss, who also suffered death. 

Sir Adbiam Fobtesgu, received 1582. This brave Knight also 
suffered death, was enrolled amongst the Saints, and his portrait 
with a sprig of palm in his hand, as an emblem of his martyrdom, 
is now to be seen in one of the chapels of St John's Church at 

Sir John de la Boohe Andbt, Turcopolier in 1586, and Bailli of 
the Morea. 

Sir Edwabd Belikghah, fl. cir. 1540. Commander of Dynmore 
in Herefordshire. 

Sir Gtles Russell, Turcopolier, 1543. He was of the knightly 
family of Strensham in Worcestershire. 

Sir Nicholas Upton, one of the bravest Knights of the Order, 
and Turcopolier. He headed a band of 80 of his brethren^ and 


400 native volunteers when the Turkish Fleet in 1551 attacked 
Valetta, and died in consequence of the wounds which he received 
in the action^ 

Sir Oswald Massinbebt, Turcopolier in 1553. 

King Philip of Spain, and King Consort of England : By a Royal 
Charter^ dated 2nd April, 1557, his Majesty and his wife Queen 
Maky, restored the Order of Saint John in England, and con- 
stituted the Grand Prior and his brother knights a Corporation 
with a Common Seal and a perpetual succession. 

Sir Thomas Tresham, of Rushton, Northamptonshire, Lord Prior 
of England, 1557. Was summoned to the first and second par- 
liaments of Queen Elizabeth. He married Lettice, daughter of 
Sir Thomas Penyston, Lord of Hauraze and Marshal in Bucks. 

Sir Richard Shelley, Turcopolier 1557, and Commander of Sle- 
biche, in the principality of Wales. Grand Prior of England, 

Sir Peter Felices de la NtJCA, Bailli of the Bailliwic of Egle 
(Jquild) in Lincolnshire, 1557. 

Sir Thomas Thornell, Commander of Willoughton, in Lincoln- 
shire, 1557. 

Sir James Shelley, Commander of Temple-Combe, in Somersetshire, 

Sir George Aylmer, Commander of South Badeisley, in Hampshire, 

Sir Henry Gerard, Commander of Yeveley, in Derbyshire, and 
Barrowe, in Cheshire, 1567. 

Sir Edward Browne, Commander of Temple-Bruer, in Lincolnshire, 

Sir Ctjthbert Leighton, Commander of Newland, Yorkshire. 

Sir Oliver Starket, confidential Secretary to the Grand Master 
La Valette. Commander of Quenyngton, in Gloucestershire at 
the date of the Charter of Philip and Mary incorporating the 
Langue of England in 1557. 

Sir James Sandilands, 4th Lord St. Johns, and Preceptor of Tor- 
phichen. He was brother of John, 9th feudal Baron of Calder, 
who held the office of High Treasurer of Scotland. This Lord 
Preceptor was the intimate personal friend of John Knox, and 
one of the first who embraced the reformed religion. His con* 
version was followed by his surrender to the Crown of the whole 
possessions of the combined Hospitallers and Templars : when, in 
consideration of a payment of 10,000 crowns of the sum, and of 



*^ his faithful, noble, and gratuitous services to the Queen and her 
royal parents," they were erected in his flavour into a temporal 
lordship, 24th June, 1563. At his death in 1596, the title and 
lordship of Torphichen passed to his great nephew, whose de- 
scendants still enjoy the same. 

Sir James Irving. Solely by the strenuous exertions of this 
Knight, it was decided in a General Chapter held in 1569 that 
the Scots should enjoy the same dignities and emoluments which 
had been previously granted to the English and Irish Knights. 

Robert Lindsat of Dunrod, Baron of Kilbryde, Justice General 
and Principal Bailli of the Lordship of Torphichen, and of the 
lands and baronies of Torphichen, Listoun, Ballintrode, and other 
Hospital and Temple lands throughout Scotland, by the com- 
missions of James, Lord St« Johns, dated 14th September, 
1569 and 20th July, 1570. 

The Bailli Cjesar Ferrrtti, of Ancona, Grand Prior of England. 
Received November 8, 1577. Was Bailli of 8. Steffano, and 
General of the Gailies. Embassador of the Order in Rome, &c. 

King Cbablrs I. His Majesty in 1633 granted an award to John 
Lord Torphichen, which was to have the force of an act of Par- 
liament, that his Majesty's resumption of the superiorities of 
Church lands should in no degree encroach upon the superiorities 
of the " mesne portion," or central part of the barony and regality 
of Torphichen, " quharin does subsist the title and dignity of 
Lords of Parliament ; and to quhilk, the title of Lord of Par- 
liament, is annexit." This '* mean portion " included the 
ancient Pbegeptobt Edifice at Torphichen, (which is still 
standing) and its immediate demesne lands, which were a 

The Bailli John Battista Nari, of Home, Grand Prior of England. 
Received April 30, 1588. Was Prior of Capua, and General of 
the Gailies, &c. 

Sir Andrew Wise, Grand Prior of England, 1593. The Langue 
of Castile and Leon was decreed to allow him out of its revenue 
a thousand ducats a-year. 

The Grand Bailli De Mendoza, filled the office of Turcopolier in 
the close of the 16th century. 

The Bailli Alexander Zambegcari, of Bologna, Grand Prior of 
England. Eeceived April 9, 1605. 

The Bailli Jerome Altibri, of Rome, Grand Prior of Ireland. 
Received September 34, 1616. Was brother to Clement X. 
Embassador of the Order in Rome, &c. 


Don Prosper Colonna, of Rome, Grand Prior of Ireland. Received 
August 21. 1632. Was son of Don Philip Colonna, Constable 
of Naples, &c. 

The Bailli Anoelo della Cjaia, of Sienna, Grand Prior of 
Ireland. Received August 16, 1634. 

The Bailli Stephen Maria Lomellino, of Genoa, Grand Prior of 
England. Received March 36, 1635. Was Prior of Venice, &c. 

His Grace Hbnrt Fitz-James, Grand Prior of England in the close 
of the 17th century, Created by his father, King James II, 
Duke of Albemarle. Was brother to Field Marshal the cele- 
brated Duke of Berwick. In 1703 this Grand Prior went to 
Rome in the quality of Embassador Extraordinary. 

Sir James Lawrence, descended from the President of Oliver 
CromweD's Privy Council, and author of a work " On the Nobility 
of the British Gentry," published in 1840 : was one of the 
Chapter in 1789, presided over by Louis Joseph des Escotais, 
Bailli and Grand Prior of Aquitaine, which cldmitted Francis 
Rene, Viscount de Chateaubriant. 

His Royal Highness Gbobge Frederick Augustus Guelph, 
KG., Prince of Wales [afterwards King George IV. The 
Badge worn by his Majesty as a Knight of St. John is now in the 
possession of Ms^or General Sir Charles R. 0*Donnell, G.C.J. J]. 

Admiral Sir Home Riggs Popham, K.C.B., M.P. 

Vice Admiral, the Rt. Honourable Sir William Johnstone Hope, 
P.C., G.C.B., Governor of Greenwich Hospital, and M.P. for 

H. R. H. Prince William Henby Guelph, K.G., K.T.and G.C.B., 
Duke of Clarence and St. Andrews, Lord High Admiral of 
England [afterwards King William the Fourth, under whose 
reign the final steps for reviving the Langue of England were 

The Bailli Carvallo, Grand Prior of Ireland, named as 15th 
member of the Sovereign Council (then numbering thirty 
members in all) resident at Malta, when the Revolution, in 1798, 
took place. The general review of Chevaliers and Commanders, 
then at the Chrf lAeu, presented 332, of whom 282 were capable 
of bearing arms. They consisted of 200 French Knights, 90 
Italians, 25 Spaniards. 8 Portuguese, 4 Germans, and 6 Anglo- 

The Honourable Sir Joshua Colles Meredyth, (8th) Baronet of 
Greenhills, County Kildare, Ireland, formerly Captain 89th 



Foot, Knight of St. Louis of France, and of Louis of Hesse- 
Darmstadt. Admitted, at Malta, by the 69tb Grand Master, 
Ferdinand de Homfesgh. [At his death, 27th July, 1850, Sir 
Joshua possessed an ancient Ring worn by the Grand Masters 
on days of Ceremony ; it had upon an oval plate the figure of a 
human skeleton,] K.O.J.J., {AngluB), Sept. 9th, 1837. Lieut. 
Pbiob of England, June 24th, 1841. 

Admiral Sir William Sidney Smith, G.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S., &c. 
[After the Siege of Acre, he had, in admiration of his heroic 
bravery, presented to him the original Badge worn by King 
Richard Cceur de Lion at the Crusades. | Admitted previous to the 
resuscitation of the English Langue ; K.C.J.J. {Anglia) Sept. 9th, 

Sir Robebt Peat, D.D., Knight Grand Cross of St. Stanislaus of 
Poland, Vicar of New Brentford, and Chaplain, to King George 
the Fourth. Admitted K.J.J., on the resuscitation of the 
English Langue. Elected Grand Pbiob of England, Jan. 29th, 

♦Theophile Anton Wilhelm, Count de Hompesoh db Wisbecq, 
Nephew and Heir of Febdinand Count db Homfesch, 69th 
Grand Master of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem. Admitted 
as an Honorary Member qf the Anglo-Bavarian Langue, circ. 1825. 
K.JJ. (Anglial Oct. 14th, 1842. K.C.J.J., June 24th. 1847. 

Major Sir Wabwick Hele Tonkin, Kt. late 2nd Dragoon Guards, 
Knight of the Legion of Honor of France, Vice-Admiral of 
Devonshire, &c., &c. [On his retirement from the Army, he 
raised two Regiments of Yeomanry Cavalry.] Admitted into the 
Order of St, John of Jerusalem as an Honorary Knight of the Anglo* 
Bavarian Langue in 1830. K.J.J. (Anglia), June 11th, 1841. 
Commissioner to the Langues of Pbovence, AuvEBaNE, and 
France, and G.O.J.J., June 24th, 1841. Lieut. Bailli 
DE Aquila, July 1st, 1857. 

The Right Honorable James Butleb, (13th) Lord Dxtnbotnb. M, 
K. J. J., Nov. 11, 1830. 

Sir John Philippart, Knight of Gustavus Vasa, and the Polar Star, 
of Sweden, M.RI.A. [Author and Editor of many Military and 
Political Works.] EL K.J.J., Nov. 11, 1830. Vice-Chanobl- 
LOB, and K.C.J.J., April 25, 1881. Chancbllob, July 6, 1847. 
Bailli db Aquila, July 1, 1857. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Sir James Edwabd Alexandeb, Kt. K.L.S., of 
Allan Park, Stirlingshire, N.B. Major of H.M. 14th Regiment, 
which he commanded at Sebastopol. [Author of ten Volumes of 
Travels, and Translations from the Persian, and Editor of a Life 


of the Duke of Wellington.] M. K.J.J., Jan. 24, 1832. K.C.J.J., 
June 24, 1842. 

William Reid Clannt, Esq., M.D., F.R.S.E., M.R.I.A., &c.. Phy- 
sician to the late Duke of Sussex. K.J. J., June 24, 1832, and 
K.G.J.J., July 19, 1849. 

Major-General Sir Charles Routledge O'Donnell, Knight, late 
commanding part of the Forces in Ireland. M, K. J.J., March 
11, 1832. K.O.J.J., Sept. 15, 1832. Pkior of lBELAND,Aug. 
20, 1865. 

Major-General Sir John Milley Doyle, K.C.B., formerly M.P. for 
the County of Carlow and Seijeant-at-Arms to the Queen. M, 
K.J.J., March 11, 1832. 

The Right Honorable Hercules Langford Rowley, (2nd) Baron 
Langford. M. K.J.J., March 30, 1832. 

Stretch Cowlby Bromlbt, Esquire, [sprung from a common stock 
with the Lords Montford]. M. K.J. J., March 30, 1832. 
Grand iSECRETARY, and K.C.J.J., July 28, 1835. 

Lieutenant-Colonel William H. Brownson, Captain H. M. 23r<i 
Welsh Fusileers, and Lieut.-Colonel in the service of Portugal. 
[His bravery was very conspicuously signalized at the storming of 
Badajos.] M. K.J.J., Sept. 15, 1832. 

William Maginn, Esq., L.L.D. M. K.J.J., Oct. 19, 1832. 

John James Watts, Esquire, of Hawksdale Hall, Carlisle, Cum- 
berland. M. K. J.J., Jan. 19, 1833. K.C. J.J. and Commissioner 
TO THE Langues OF SOUTHERN EuROPE, July 1, 1857. 

Captain Thomas Grant, of Bideford, Vice-Admiral of Devonshire. 
m. K.J.J., Jan. 19, 1833. 

♦Peter Victor, Count de Tooquevillb. M. K.J. J., March 5, 

Sir Freeman Barton, Kt., formerly Captain 2nd Foot M. K.J .J., 
Sept. 15, 1833. 

EwEN Maophbrson, of Cluny, Chief of the Clan Macpherson, 
El. K.J.J., Jan. 13, 1834. K.C.J J., July 6, 1847. 

General George Duncan Robertson, of Strowan, Chief of the 
Clan DoNOCHY. M. K.J.J., Jan, 13, 1834. K.C.J.J., July 6, 

The Honourable Sir Richard Broun, Knight and (8th) Baronet 
of Scotland and Nova Scotia, Baron of Colstoun, Haddington- 
shire, and Chief of his race in North Britain. M. K.J.J., July 
28, 1835. Registrar, March 8, 1887. K.C.J.J., and Grand 
Secretary, June 24, 1839. G.C.J.J., June 24, 1841. 


BOBEBT BiosBT, Esq., L.L.D., &c, [Historian of Repton, and 
Author of various works.] KJ.J., July aS, ]886., K.C.J.J , 
Nov. 18, 1841. Seneschal, Aug. 20, 1855. 

William Besthah, Esquire, F.R.8. El. K.J.J., July 28, 1835. 

The Honorable Randall Plunkett, M.P., eldest son of Edward 
•(14th) Lord Dunsakt. M. KJ.J., July 28, 1835. 

Ghablbs Fitzgerald Mackenzie, Esquire. M, K.J.J., July 28, 
1 835. ^. 

The Right Hon. Sir Lancelot Shadwell, Kt., yice-Chancellor 
of England. M, K.J J., July 22, 1837. K.C.J.J., June 24, 


The Chevalier James Burnes, E.H,, F.RB. [Long prominently 
employed in India, with his brothers Sir Alexander and 
Charles, who fell at Cabul.] M, K.J.J., July 22, 1837. Com- 
missioner in the East, Aug. 6, 1837. K.C.J. J., June 24, 
1841. G.C.J.J. ; and Preceptor of Scotland, July 1, 1857. 

Henry Pownall, Esq., of Spring Grove, Middlesex, a Magistrate 
for the same County. M. KJ.J., July 22, 1837. 

The Hon. Sir Francis Charles Knowles, (3rd) Baronet, M.A., 
F.R.S., of Level Hill, Berks, and of Llwynadoc, Machyn- 
leth. N. W. M. K.J.J., July 22, 1837. K.C.JJ., June 24, 

William Crawford, Esq., M.A., Barrister-at-Law, and Judge at 
Bombay. El, K.J.J., and Commissioner to the Langubs of 
Provence, Auveronb, and France, July 22, 1837. Referen- 
dary, June 24, 1839. K.C.J.J., June 24, 1841. One of the 
Commissioners to India, July 1, 1857. 

Edward George Lambert Perrott, Esq., Captain East Kent 
Militia, eldest son of the Honourable Sir Edward Bindloss 
Perrott, Baronet. M. K.J.J., July 22, 1837. K.C.J.J., June 21, 
1841. Seneschal, July 6, 1847. Libdt.-Bailli de Aquila, 
Aug. 20, 1855. Lieot.-Bailli of Wales, July 1, 1857, 
G.C.J.J. Aug. 11, 1857. 

Robert Lucas Pearsall, Esquire, of Willsbridge House, and 
J.P. for Gloucestershire. M, K.J.J., and Commissioner to the 
Langue of Germany, and to the Grand Priories and 
commandbbies in the austrian empire, july 22, 1837. 
K.C.J.J., June 24, 1841. 

William Bell, Esquire, M.D., 33, George Street, Hanover 
Square, London. EL K.J.J., and Physician in Ordinarz, 
Sept. 9, 1837. 


The Honorable Sir 'V^illiam Htt.t.ary, (Ist) Baronet, of Danbury 
Place, Essex, and of Rigg House, Yorkshire, formally Equerry 
to the Duke of Sussex, E.G., Author of several publications. 
[On the renewal of war with France, in 1803, Sir William raised, 
at the personal cost of £40,000, and for many years commanded, 
the Essex Legion of Infantry and Cavalry, amounting to 1,400 
men, the largest force offered by any private individual for the 
defence of the Country. He was Founder of the Royal National 
Institution for the Preservation of Life from Shipwreck, and 
personally aided in saving 509 lives, the crews of 29 vessels, for 
which services, 5 gold and 14 silver medals were awarded to him.] 
M, K.J.J., July 7, 1838. Lieutenant-Turcopolibb, and 
CAPiTTJLiLB Bailli, Juuo 24, 1841. 

The Honorable Sir Augustus William Hillabt, (2nd) Baronet, 
late of H. M. 6th Dragoon Guards, M, KJ.J., June 7, 1838. 
K.C.J.J., June 24, 1841. 

The Honorable Sir Henbt Dymoke, (1st) Baronet, of Scrivelsby 
Court, Lincolnshire, (17th) Hereditary Champion of the English 
Crown, and Kepresentative of the ancient family of Mabmion, 
Lords of Fonteney in Normandy, and Barons Mabmion in 
England. [He officiated as Champion at the Coronation of 
King Geobqb IV., supported by the Dukes of Norfolk, and 
Wellington.] M. K.J.J., and Grand Prior of England, 
July 15, 1838. Capitular Bailli, June 24, 1841. Lieut.- 
TuBCoPoLiER, June 24, 1847. 

James Newton, Esquire, of Cheadle Heath, Cheshire, and of 
Harold Tower, Isle of Man, Deputy Lieutenant for Cheshire, 
Lancashire, and Derbyshire. ^^. K. J. J., Jan. 17, 1839. K.C.J.J., 
June 24, 1841. 

Sir James Pearl, Kt., K.H., Commander R.N. [He commanded 
the poop of the Neptune, at Trafalgar, and was one of the brave 
officers who volunteered to break the enemy *s protecting line in 
Aix Roads. During the Burmese war he received the repeated 
thanks of the Indian Government.] El, K.J.J., May 4, 1839. 

Captain Biohard Thomas Master, formerly of H. M. 3rd Grena- 
dier Guards, [descended from the celebrated Dr. Masteb, Phy- 
sician to Queen Elizabeth.] EL K.J.J., July 17, 1840. 

Egbert Lucas Peaesall, Younger, Esquire, of Willsbridge House, 
Gloucestershire, an Officer in the Austrian Service. El, K.J.J., 
July 17, 1840. 

Captain Abthub Stobmont Mubbat, formerly of the Rifle Bri- 
gade, third son of Major-General the Honorable Henbt Mitbbat, 


CD., and Grandson of David (2nd) Earl of Mansfield, K.T. 
M. K.J.J., December 18, 1840. Commissioneb to the Langues 
IN Southern Eubopb, and K.C.J.J., June 94, 1841. 

Joseph Gohpton Pott, Esquire, Younger, of Harden, Kent. M. 
KJ.J., June 24, 1841. 

The Honourable Sir Hbnbt Mebvtn VAYASonR, (3rd) Baronet, of 
Spaldington Hall, Yorkshire, Senior Baronet of the United King- 
dom. M. K.J.J., June 24, 1841. K C.J.J., June 24, 1847. 

Edwabd F. p. MacEvot, Esquire, of Tobertinan Abbey, County 
Meath Jreland,M.P. for the same County, Captain Longford Eifles, 
grandson of the Hon. Sir Joshua C. Meredtth, Baronet, 
Lieut. Prior op England. El. K.J.J., Nov. 13, 1841. 

Sir Robert Alex. Ohermside, Kt., M.D., K.C.H., Knight 
of the Red Eagle, and Legion of Honour, Physician to the 
British Embassy at Paris. M. K.J.J., and Resident Corres- 
pondent AT Paris, June 24, 1842. K.C.J.J., July 8, 1857. 

Colonel the Honorable Sir Allan Napier M*Nab, Knight, and 
(Ist) Baronet of Dundum Castle, near Hamilton, Canada West, 
late Speaker of the Legislative Assembly, and Prime Minister of 
Canada. M. K.J.J., Oct. 14, 1842. K.C.J.J., June 24, 1847. 
G.C.J.J., Aug. 20, 1856. 

Thomas Rolph, Esquire, late of Ancaster, near Toronto, Upper 
Canada, [Author of several publications connected with Coloni- 
sation and the Government of Canada.] M. K.J.J., Oct. 14, 

♦Carl Georg Alexander, Baron Von Bulow, an OflBcer in the 
Prussian Service, and Cousin to the late Prussian Ambassador to 
England, since Minister of Foreign Affairs. M, K.J.J., Nov. 
18, 1842. KC.J.J., June 24, 1847. 

♦The Baron de Mettbrnich, President Jctuel of the Government of 
Potsdam. [On the nomination of the Count de Hompesch.] M. 
K.J.J., May 31, 1843. K.C.J.J., June 24, 1847. 

The Honorable Sir John James Walsham, (Ist) Baronet of Knill 
Court, Herefordshire, one of H. M. Poor Law Commissioners, 
Depnty-Lieutenant for Hereford and Radnor, and late Major in 
the Herefordshire Militia. HI. K.J.J., June 30, 1843. K.C.J. J., 
June 24, 1847. 

The Honorable Sir John Bell Willia.m Mansel, (9th) Baronet of 
Ischoel, Carmarthenshire, and of Wrotham, Kent, Deputy-Lieu- 
tenant for Carmarthenshire, of which he was High Sheriff" in 
1846. M. K.J.J., June 30, 1843. K.C.J.J., June 24, 1847. 

The Honorable Sir Edward Bindloss Perrott, (3rd) Baronet, of 
Haroldston, Pembrokeshire, [a Baron of the French Realm, with 


the Privilege of the " Tabouret " to the Ladies bearing the title of 
his House, as conferred by King Louis the Fifteenth.] M, 
K.J.J., July 31, 1844. K.C.J.J., June 24, 1845. 

The Honorable Sir Eobebt Keith Dick Cuntngham, (6th) Baronet, 
of Lamburghton, Ayrshire, and of Prestonfield, Mid Lothian, N.B. 
m. K.J.J., July 31, 1844. K.C.J.J., June 24th, 1847. 

The Honorable Francis Henry Needhah, third son of Francis 
2nd Earl of Kilmorey. El. K.J. J., June 4th, 1846. 

The Honorable Sir Charles Montolieu Lamb, (2nd) Baronet, of 
Burville, Berks, and of Beauport, Sussex, Knight Marshal of the 
Queen's Household, Baron of St. Hypolite, in France, D.C.L., 
Deputy-Lieutenant for Sussex and Ayrshire, Lieutenant-Colonel 
of the Ayrshire Yeomanry Cavalry. £L K.J. J., Grand Prior 
OP England and Capitular Bailli, June 24th, 1847. 

♦His Highness Prince Alexander Labanofp. [As a special mark 
of appreciation of the services he rendered to historical truth, by 
the publication of the Correspondence of Mary Queen of Scots.] 
EL G.C.J.J., June 24th, 1847. 

The Reverend Eoger Dawson Dawson-Duppield, M.A. Rector of 
Calcethorpe, Lincolnshire, Vicar of Great Eversden, Cambridge- 
shire, formerly Chaplain to the late Duke of Cambridge, K.G. 
El. K.J.J., June 24th, 1847. Chaplain in Ordinary, July 6th, 


The Reverend Henry Curtis Cherry, M.A., Rector of Burghfield, 
Berks, Chaplain to Lord De Saumarez, a Magistrate for Berks, 
Author of various Theological Works.] EL K.J.J., and 
Chaplain in Ordinary, July 6th, 1847. 

The Right Honorable Hugh Seymour M'Donnell, 6th Earl of 
Antrim. EL K.J.J., June 24th, 1848. 

SoMERViLLB Waldemar Burgess, Esquiro ; [Brother of the pre- 
sent Grand Prior.] EL K.JJ., June 24th, 1848. 

Charlbs James Saville Montgomery Lamb, Esquire, eldest son 
of the Grand Prior, by Mary Dowager Lady Montgomery, 
daughter of Archibald, 11th Earl of Eglington, and mother 
of Archibald William, ] 3th and present Earl. EL K. J.J., 
June 24th, 1848. 

Major William Stuart Griffiths, of Hamlet House, Hammer- 
smith, Half-pay H.M. 23rd Foot, and late Major 2ud Middlesex 
Militia, Deputy-Lieut, for Middlesex. EL K.J.J., June 24, 
1848. K.C.J.J., Aug. 11, 1857. 

Lieutenant-Colonel David Wilkie of Batheaston, Bath. EL K.J. J., 
June 24th, 1848. 


Leiutenant-Coloael Chaklis Abohibalp Mac Ai<B8TB&, of Ax- 
minster, Devon. EL K.J.J., Jane 24th, 1848. 

MoETiMBB Glotsb, Esquiro, M.D., late of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
recently on Her Majesty^s service in the Crimea. EL K.J. J., 
and PHfTSiGiAM Df Ordinary, June 24th, 1848. 

Colonel Claudius Shaw, E.S.F., F.RS.Em M^or Hampshire 
Militia Artillery, formerly of the Royal Artillery, late Colonel of 
Artillery in the Spanish Legion ; [Bears a Gold Medal for Yrun, 
May 17, 1837, where he commanded the Artillery, and the 
Peninsular War Medal with two Clasps for San Sebastian and the 
Passage of the Nive.] EL E.J.J., Aug. 16th, 1848. 

lieutenant-Colonel William Jamss Broun, H. M. Eoyal Guernsey 
Militia, Government-Secretary of Guernsey, and A.D.C. to H.E. 
the Lieut. -Governor, nephew of the late Hon. Sir James 
Broun, Baronet, and great-nephew of H.E. the late Lieut.- 
Govemor Broun, of Guernsey. EL K.J.J., Aug. 16, 1848. 

The Eeverend John Chipprndalb MoNTSsquiUE Bellbw, S.C.L., 
EL EJ.J., July 10, 1840. Chaplain in Ordimart, July 1, 

Major William Bucklrt, Bengal Cavalry. El. K.J.J., July 19, 

The Chevalier Thomas Troughear Williams, M.D., Count of 
the Lateran, and Knight of the Golden Spur of Home, late 
Assistant-Inspector General of Hospitals in the British Auxiliary 
Legion in the service of the Queen of Spain, Physician to the 
Spanish Embassy at the Court of St. James's. [Eeceived the cor- 
dial thanks of the Duke db laYictoria (Espartero), late Eegent 
of Spain, ** for services in the cause of Spanish liberty, and toils in 
the British Auxiliary Legion."] EL K.J.J., Aug. 20, 1855. 
KC.JJ., and Chancellor, July 1, 1857. G.C.J.J., Aug. 11, 

The Beverend William Sloane Sloane-Eyans, M.A., East 
Allington, Totnes, Devon. [Author of a work on Heraldry and 
other publications.] EL K.J.J., Aug. 20, 1855. 

Alfred Bate Bichards. Esquire, B.A., only son of the late 

John Bichards, Esquire, M.P., of Wassell Grove, and of 

Baskerville House, Worcestershire, formerly High Sheriff of 

that county. [Author of numerous works.] EL K.J.J., Aug. 

20, 1855. 

John Obins Woodhousb, Esquire, of Portadovm, Co. Armagh, and 
Mulroy Castle, Co. Donegsd, eldest son of Curran Woodhouse, 
Esq., late Deputy-Lieutenant, Co, Amuigh. EL K.J.J.,Aug.20, 


The Chevalier John Gunning, C.B., Knight of Wilhelm of the 
Netherlands, Inspector-General of Army Hospitals ; formerly 
Surgeon-in-Chief of the Peninsular Army under the Duke of 
Wellington. [Served in Flanders, Spain, and at Waterloo. 
Eeceived the Waterloo Medal, and the War Medal with eleven 
clasps.] EL K.J.J., and Surgeon Extkaordinaey, Aug. 20, 
1855. KC.J.J.. July 28, 1867. 

♦His Excellency General Flores, Knight Grand Cross of Charles 
the III., and Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour, late 
President of the Republic of the Equador. EL G.C.J.J., Aug. 20, 

BicHABD Sprye, Esquire, a retired Captain of the Army of India, 
and sometime Deputy Judge Advocate-General of the Madras 
Army, [served through the first Burmah War, for which he has 
the Ava Medal, also in the ceded Tenasserim Provinces, &c. 
Has written much on the Internal Government of India, Military 
Discipline, and political and commercial intercourse with the 
East.] El. K.JJ., Aug. 20, 1855. K.C.J.J., July 8, 1857. 

♦General Stagg, late the General Commanding at Quito, [decorated 
with various Orders, Son-in-law of General Flores.] EL K.J.J., 
Aug. 20, 1855. 

Bear- Admiral Alexander Dundas Arbuthnott, one of the Gentle- 
men of Her Majesty's Privy Chamber, Knight of Charles III., of 
San Fernando, the Medjidie, and of St; George of Eussia, late a 
Brigadier-General in the British Auxiliary Legion of Spain. 
EL K.J.J., Aug. 20, 1855, and K.C.J.J., July 8, 1857. Com- 
ifENDATOR OF Temfle-Combe, Somersetshire, Dec. 21, 1857. 

Bernard Pauncefote, Esquire, of Preston Court, Gloucestershire, 
eldest surviving son of the late Robert Pauncefote, Esquire, 
devisee of his cousin, the late Honorable Sir George Pauncefote, 
Baronet, of all his unentailed estates, including Preston Court. 
EL K.J.J., Aug. 20, 1855. 

♦General, His Excellency the Duke Louis de Riario-Sforza, 
Knight and Grand Cross of numerous Orders. Member of the 
illustrious House of Sforza, Sovereign Dukes of Milan in the 
15th century; one of whom was a Knight of the Garter in the 
Reign of King Edward IV. EL G.C.J.J., Aug. 20, 1855. 
Bailli Mandatory to Italy, Dec. 91, 1857. 

The Honorable Sir Edward Hoabb, (4th} Baronet of Annabelle^ 
Co. Cork, nephew of the late Admiral the Marquess of Thomond, 
G.C.H. JS:/.K.J.J., July 1,1857, 


Vice- Admiral the Honorable Alexander Montoomert Jones, ninth 
and only suryiving son of Charles (4tb) Viscount Ranelagh, and 
Heir PresumptiTe to the tiUe. EL E.J J., July I, 1857. 

Frederick Wollaston, Esquire, of Shenton Hall, Leicestershire, 
a Deputy-Lieutenant of the county. Has served the office of 
High Sheriff. Late m^jor of the Inniskilling Dragoons. EL 
KJ.J., July 1. 1867. K.CJ.J., July 8, 1857. 

*The Duke of Alba and Berwick, Grandee of Spain, and Knight 
of many Orders. EL G.CJ.J., July I, 1857. Bailli Manda- 
tory 10 Spain, Dec. 21, 1857, 

William Beattie, Esquire, M.D., Physician to His late Majesty 
King William lY. wlulst Duke of Clarence, and author of many 
highly esteemed works. EL K.J.J., July 1, 1857. 

David MAflLouanuN, M.D., Knight of the Legion of Honor of 
France, and late Physician to the British Embassy at Paris. 
EL KJ.J., July I, 1857. 

Lieut Dalhousie Holmes Burnes, Royal Engineers. El, K.J.J. , 
July 1, 1857. 

Major-General Walter John Browne, C.B. El KJ.J., July 1, 
1857. K.C.J.J., July 8, 1857. 

The Beverend Frederick Pearce Pogook, M.A. of St Peter's 
College, Cambridge. M. KJ.J., July 8, 1857. One of the 
Chaplains in Ordinary to the Order. \ 

Lieut-General Sir James Outram, G.C.B., late commanding the 
Army in Persia. EL K.J.J., July 8, 1857. G.C.J.J., July 
16, 1857. Preceptor in India, Dec. 21, 1857. 

Philip William Le Geyt, Esq., Member of the Legislative 
Council of India. EL K.J.J., July 8, 1857. K.C.J.J. and Sub- 
Preceptor in India, Jan. 18, 1858. 

Lieut-Colonel James Ramsat, Commissary-General, Bengal. 
EL K.J.J., July 8, 1857. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Franklin Lushington, C.B. EL K.J.J., July 
8, 1857. 

Lieut.-Colonel John Holmes, late a Brigadier-General in the 
Turkish Contingent. EL K.J.J., July 8, 1857. 

William Alexander Laurie, of Boss-end Castle, Fifeshire, 
F.8.A., E. EL K.J.J., July 8, 1857. Secretary in Scotland. 

John Whitehead, Esquire, Lawful Superior of the Barony of Drem, 
and other combined Hospitaller and Templar lands in Scotland. 
EL K.J.J., July 8, 1857. Chancellor in Scotland. 


William Pringle, Esq., Edinburgh. ^/. K. J. J., July 8, 1867. 
Treasubeb in Scotland. 

Colonel William Burlton, C.B. EL KJ J., July 8, 1857 

Iiieut. FiTZJAMEs Holmes Burnes. EL KJ.J., July 8, 1857. 

John Fabley Leith, Esquire, Professor of Civil Law at Haileybury, 
College. EL K.J.J., July 8. 1857. 

Major Reginald Best Breto. EL K.J.J., July 8, 1857. 

Adam Burnes, Esquire, Hong Kong. EL K.J.J., July 8, 1857. 
Correspondent of the Langue in New Zealand. 

Lieut.-Col. Harry Jas. Barr. EL K.J.J ., July 8, 1857. 

John Grant, Esq, Sup. Surgeon Bengal. EL K.J.J., July 8, 1857.' 

James Copland, Esquire, M.D., F.R.S., Author of the Dictionary 
of Practical Medicine. EL K.J.J., July 16, 1857. Physician 
Extraordinary to the Langue. 

The Honorable Hamnett Pinhey, of Horace Ville, Canada, Member 
of the Canadian Legislature, and one of the Governors of Christ's 
' Hospital, London. EL K.J.J., Aug. 11, 1857. 

Dr. LuiGi Vella, Keeper of the Government Archives in Valetta. 
J5:;.K.J.J., Aug. 28, 1857. 

William Winthrop, Esquire, Consul of the United States of 
America at Malta. EL K.J.J., Aug. 28, 1857. Commissioner 
TO the United States, Jan. 18, 1858. 

Lieut.-Colonel John Le Couteur, Viscount of Jersey, A.D.C. to 
Her Majesty. EL K.J.J., Aug. 28, 1857. K.C.J.J., Feb. 16, 


William Lockyer Freesttjn, Esquire, M.P. for Weymouth. A 
Magistrate and Deputy-Lieutenant for Dorsetshire. Colonel in 
the Army; served with distinction in the Peninsula and Syria, 
Knight Commander of the Spanish Orders of Charles III., 
San Fernando, and Isabella. Received Gold Medal from the Sultan 
of Turkey for Syria ; and the Medals for San Sebastian and Yrun. 
Admitted at Jerusalem as a Knight of the Holy Sepulchre, 1841. 
El. K,C.JJ., Anglia, Aug. 28, 1857. Commendator of Ivbley, 
Derbyshire, Dec. 21, 1857. 

The Chevalier Ernest Augustus Bonar. Received into the Bavarian 
Priory, Sept. 8, 1840. K.C.J.J. Anglia, Aug. 28. 1857, and 
Commissioner to the Order within the circle of Bavaria. 

Baron de Buss, R.S.L., a Magistrate for Middlesex. EL K.J.J., 
Dec. 12, 1857. K.O.J.J., Dec. 21, 1857, and Treasurer 
and Almoner of the Langue. 


Count Fane de Saijs, Knight of the Golden Spur, a Magistrate 
for Middlesex, &c. Heceived on the Continent, K.C.J.J. Anglid, 
and CoiCMENDATOB OP WiLLOUGHTON, Lincolnshire, Dec. 21, 1857. 

Lieut-Col. Sir Eicanuel Felix Aoab, Knight, formerly M.P. 
for Sudbury. El. KJ.J., Dec. 12, 1867. K.C.JJ. and Com- 
KENDATOR OF Baodesleye, Hampshire, Dec. 21, 1857. 

Sir John Fife, Knight, F.C.S., a Dep. Lieut, for Northumber- 
land. EL K.J.J., Dec. 12, 1857. 

Captain Trevennan James Holland, late Assistant-Quarter-Master- 
General with the Army in Persia. EL K.J.J., Dec. 12, 1857. 

The Heverend Gustavus Adolphus Warner, M.A., Protestant 
Clergyman at Lyons. EL K.J.J., Dec. 12, 1857. One of the 
Chaplains in Ordinary to the Langue. 

The Chevalier Fischer Alexander Wilson, Knight of the Golden 
Spur and Count of the Lateran, Knight of the Legion of Honor 
of France, Ac. M, K.J.J., Dec. 12, 1857; K.C.J.J. and Com- 
MENDATOR OF QuENYNOTON, Gloucestershire, Jan. 18, 1858. 

Lieut. Walter Strickland, R.N. El. K.J.J., Dec. 12, 1857. 

Lieut. -General William Fergusson, Knight of the First Class of 
the Order of the Crescent ; Medals for Egypt, &c, EL K J.J., 
Dec. 12, 1857. K.C.J.J., Feb. 16, 1858. 

Eear-Admiral Sir James Hanway Plumridge, K.C.B., formerly 
Commander-in-Chief on the East India Station, and M.P. for 
Falmouth ; Medals for Trafalgar, Baltic, &c. EL Dec. 12, 1857, 
K.C.JJ., Feb. 16, 1858. 

The Venerable Willum D. Ixin, Archdeacon of Appin. El. K.J.J., 
January 18, 1858. One of the Chaplains in Ordinary. 

Vice-Admiral George Edward Watts, C.B.; Knight of the Guelphic 
Order ; of Henri the Lion of Brunswick ; and of the Red Eagle of 
Prussia. ^.K.J.J.,January 18, 1858. K.C.J.J.,Feb. 16, 1868. 

Colonel Tache, recently head of the Government of Canada, 
Member of the Legislative Assembly of that Province, &c. 
El, KJ.J., Jan. 18, 1858. KC.J.J., Feb. 16, 1868. 

Lieut. General Sir John Lysaght Pennefathbr, K.C.B., Com- 
mander in Chief at Malta. EL K.J.J., Feb. 16, 1858, and also 

Major-General Cecil Bisshopp. El. K.J.J., Feb. 16, 1858, and 
also K.C.J.J. 


Cay rf Jigttitq, 


€tisiumt, |nsipa, h. 

<S^ of Bt|(mts« 

The Cap of Dignity, or Maintenance, worn by the Knights of 
Saint John, and borne over their achievements as an armorial dis- 
tinction, is of scarlet cloth, faced with black velvet. In front of the 
Gap is the eight pointed cross or star of the Order, as shewn in the 

Cife profession l&ing. 

This symbol of the Order, which is required to be at all times worn, 
is of plain massive Grold, bearing upon a circular enamelled black 
field the White Cross of the Order. 

^I^e ^tar ot Cross. 

The Star or Cross of St. John, is one of eight points, symbolical 
of the eight Beatitudes, and also of the eight Langues, or branches 
of the Order. 

The Stars or Crosses for the three classes of Knights are the same 
in shape and material, but they differ from each other in size. They 
are made of frosted silver with the edges burnished. The Star for 
SLnights is of the size shewn in the wood-cut. That for Knights 
Commanders is a size larger ; and the one for Knights Grand Crosses 
is still larger. 

Instead of the burnished edging the Great Officers of the Langue 
may enrich their Cross by substituting brilliants. 


E{)( ISaHgc or irfoei. 

The Badge, or Jewel, worn by the members of the Order of the 
Langue of England, consiBts of a Cross enamelled, argent, aogled 
alternately with the Lion and Unicom, the national supporters of 
Great Britain, or. surmounted by a sovereign Grown. 

[King Gkorge IV. set the example of wearing the Badge so angled^ 
in consequence of the French flights charging their Badge with 
Fleur^'liBy the G«rman Knights with Eagles, and the Spanish Knights 
with Castles, &c.] 

The Badge is worn suspended from the neck, by a black watered 
Eiband. The Badge for Kn^hts is of the size represented in the wood^ 
cut. That for J^ights Commanders is a size larger ; and that for 
Knights Grand Crosses is still larger. 

Knights Grand Crosses may surmount their Badge with the heraldic 
trophy shewn at page xii., and wear it on the left side suspended to a 
broad black watered cordon worn over the right shoulder, or they may 
hang it round the neck. 

W^it HniCbrm* 

The Uniform Coat is of scarlet doth, double breasted, with black 
or white velvet facings, as the wearer is an Equea Justitia or an Eques 
Qratia ; the former wearing black, the latter white. 

The buttons bear the cross of the Order in high relief; and the 
epaulets, which are of rich gold bullion, have the cross embroidered 
in silver on the straps. 

The trousers, black or white according to the choice of the Knight, 
are striped with a broad band of gold-lace, figured alternately with 
the Cross and Palm leaves. 

The sword is straight, with an ivoiy cruciform hilt, in a scabbard 
of black or white velvet, with gold mountings. It is worn suspended 
from a waist-belt of black or white velvet, also gold mounted. 

A cocked hat, with black and white Ostrich feathers, gauntlet gloves, 
and boots with gilt spurs, complete the dress. 

On great occasions a sopra-vest, or tabard, of crimson silk, lined 
white, and having the cross of the Order embroidered in silver on the 
front, is worn over the uniform, and over all is the black robe or 
mantle seen in the frontispiece. 

i^fie ot IKantle* 

This is made of black material, lined with white, and on the left 
side is the cross of the Order formed of white silk, or glazed linen. 


For ordinary use the Knights wear a cloak of a dark mixture, having 
a bhick ydvet collar fasten^ by a silver clasp, composed of the herald- 
ic trophy given at page xii. 

On the inner lining of the cloak left side, is the White Cross inter- 
woven into, or worked upon, the lining. 

Armorial Bearings. 

The Knights and Commanders carry the arms of the Order in 
Chief over their family coat, and exhibit the same in pennons 
en saltier behind their escutcheons ; which latter may be surmounted 
either by a fore-right vizor, or with the Cap of Dignity. The badge 
is shewn below the shield suspended from the riband, or from a 
collar of beads, which surrounds the shield. (See Example, page 40). 

The Motto of the Order " Pbo Fide," or " Four laFoy" is dis- 
played on a scroll over all. 

The Knights Grand Crosses in addition may display their shield 
on the Great Cross of the Order. 

The floreated Circlet which surmounts the Eoll of Knights, is the 
distinctive coronet of all the chivalric institutions of which the Order 
of St. John is the exemplar. 

jiB^r^p "'.^^ ^s^ 

(ZDtoss, SSa&ge, anlr (ZDoIIat of tit ®xtitx of tj^e f^olg Sbtpulcj^re. 

iDemf-aSaUge of t|^( 

QDollar and ODross of tj^e (&(titx of ^t ^ntj^ong. 

These two most ancient and distinguished Orders [the former at- 
tributed to St. Helene the mother of Constantino the Great, reno- 
vated in its lustre by Charlemagne, A.D. 801, and further established 
by Godfrey de Bouillon, the first Christian king of Jerusalem, in 
1099 ; the latter commenced by the Emperor of Etiopia commonly 
called Prester John, cir. A.D. 370] were united with the Sovereign 
Obdeb op St. John towards the close of the memorable Grandmas- 
tership of Peter d'Aubusson, called ** the Saviour of Rhodes, and the 
buckler of Christendom." Since then (1481) in all public acts the 
titles of the Grand Master have been ** Dei Gratia, Domus Hospitalis 
•* Saneti Johannis Hierasolimitani, MUitaris Ordinis Sanvti Sepuleri 
** Dominici, et Ordinis Saneti Anthonii Viennensis, Magisteb 
" lIuMiLis, Pauperumgue Jesu Christi CusToa." 

The jewel of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre is composed of five 
red crosses. The Badge, as shewn in the wood-cut, is worn with a 
collar composed of small red crosses. 

The cross of St. Anthony is blue, three of the branches terminating 
in golden fleur-de-lis. The collar, as shown in the wood-cut, is 
composed of precious stones. 

On a banner, the Knights of St. Anthony carry a Lion rampant, 
with the motto — " Vicit Leo de Tribu Juda.** 

The Knights Hospitallers of Saint John " ever with tender care 
treated the sick and wounded of every country, and every nation." 

To perpetuate this pious principle of the Order in the British Islands, 
and to give practical effect to the charitable views of its Chivalry, and 
of benevolent persons in general, it is intended to erect and 
endow a Hospital in London or its vicinity for the reception and 
medical treatment of the sick poor of the nations which the Eight 
Langues of the Order comprehend. 

All persons — ^male or female — ^who contribute or bestow any sum 
or sums towards the Donat or charitable Fund of the Langue, not 
less than &o, have their names and donations enrolled in the records 
of the Order; and are presented with the Demi-Cross, which they 
have the privilege both of wearing as a personal decoration of honor, 
and suspending to their arms as a mark of heraldic distinction. 

(Cjltoiniliigiiiil 4^lt 

0» ' 




L Raymoiid Da Puis . 

. 1118 

89. Emeri D*Amboiae . . 


2. AngtrdeBftlben 

. 1160 

40. Gny de Blancbefort . 


8. Amrad de Compe . 

. 1168 

41. Fabricio Gaietto. 


4. GUbert D'AmuM 

. 1167 

42. YUlienB de L'Isle Adam . 


6. Oastns 

. 1169 

48. Peter Dapont . 


6. JonbertofSjrria 

. 1176 

44. Didierde Saint Jaille 


7. RogerdeMoalin 

. 1177 

46. John D^Omedea . . 


& Garnier of Kaplooae . 

. 1187 

46. CUadedelaSangle . 


9. Brmengard Daps 

. 1187 

47. JohndelaValette . 


10. Godfie^deDusBoa . 

. 1191 

48. Peter de Monte 


11. Alphoiuo of Portugal. 

. 1202 

49. JobndeUCassiere . 


12. GodfWsyleRat . . 

. 1202 

60. Hugh de Yerdale 


18. Gaerin de Montaign . 

. 1208 

51. Martin Gazez . 


14. BertranddeTexis . 

. 1280 

62. AlofdeYignaooort . . . 


16. Gnarin de Montacate . 

. 1281 

68. Mendez de Yaaoonoellos. . 


18. Bertrand de Comps . 

. 1286 

64. Anthony dePaole . 


17. Peter deViUebride . 

. 1241 

55. Paul Lascaris . 


18. Wimam de Gbateaanenf 

. 1244 

66. Martin de Redin 


19. Ru^ de Revel 

. 1259 

67. Annet de Clermont . 


. 1278 

58. Raphael Cotoner 


21. Jobn de Yillien 

. 1289 

59. Nicholas Cotoner 


22. Ode de Pins . . 

. 1297 

60. Gregory Caraffa 


23. ^lUiam de Vniaret . 

. 1300 

61. Adrian de Yignaooort 


24. Folk de VilUret 

. 1307 

62. Raymond Perellos . 


25. HertODdeYilleDeuye. 

. 1319 

68. Mark Anthony Zondodari . 


26. Deodato de Gozon 

. 1846 

64. Manael de Yillena . 


27. Peter de CornilUn . 

. 1858 

65. Raymond Despuig . 


28. Roger de Pins . 

. 1855 

66. Emannel Pinto de Fonseca. 


29. Raymond Berenger . 

. 1365 

67. Francis Ximenes 


80. Robert de Jalliac . 

. 1374 

68. Emanuel de Rohan . 


81. Joan Hemandes de Heredia 1876 

69. Ferdinand de Hompesch . 


82. Pbilibert de Naiilac . 

. 1396 

70. The Emperor Paul . 


83. Anthony Flavian 

. 1421 

71. Count Soltikoff 


84. John de Lastic . 

. 1437 

72. John de Tomasi, eir . 


85. James deMilly . 

. 1454 

73. The Bailli de Guevara „ 


86. Peter Raymond Zacosta 

. 3461 

74. The Bailli Y. Centelles „ 


87. John Baptista Ursini 

. 1464 

75. The Bailli de Candida „ 


88. Peter D'Aabusson . 

. 1476 

76. The BaiUi Count CoUoredo 








The following Boyal Charter incorporating the Langue, bears date at 
Greenwich on the 2nd day of April, 1657, bebg the 4th and 6th 
year of the reign of King Philip and Queen Mary. It was 
formally rerived on the S4th day of Febmazy, 1884, when the late 
Lord Prior, Sir Bobert Peat, Esight Grand Cross of the Blustrions 
Order of St. Stanislaus, qualified under it in the Court of King's 
Bench, by taking the oaths of Office before the Right Honorable 
Sir Thomas Denman, Lord Chief Justice of England. 

Throughout the 877 years which elapsed between the dates above 
given, the Corporation of the Venerable Langue of England, although 
in abeyance within the British islands, never ceased to exsist, or to 
have representation, at the Chrf lAeu of the Sovereign Fraternity. 

%tX it HigitiJi (JDrauihiB ai ijinw, kt,, hbAm. cnm jure 

Optimo ac nostro profiteamur no6 sacroeanctas Fidei Defenaores ezistere, eaquepro- 
fessio sit portio nominis, stili, tituli, honoris, et regi® nostm dignitatis, qn& hacte- 
nns ex DivinA providentift usi siimxis, arbitramur nos rem Deo atque universo orbi 
pergratam factoros, hoc prsBsertim tempore, si aliquid opens aggrediamur, quo 
mmidus innotescat nos quemadmodmn sacrosanctie Fidei Defensionem nomine, 
stilo, atque titulo profitemur, Deo favente, in hoc cogitationes nostras ponere, ut 
ad Divinam gloriam aliquid agente, atque agamus, quo oonspicuum fiat ip6& 
re atque facto nos Fidem defendere atque propugnare. Itaque recolentes, atque 
ad memoriam revocantes Hospitals S. Johannis Jbbusalem in Akglia ni^>er 
dissolutum, et annuos redditus ejusdem pervenisse ad manus atque possessionem 
Regis Henrici Octavi, patris nostrum dictse Regin» prsecarissimi ; et post mortem 
prsBdicti patris nostrum ejusdem Reginae, Henrici Octavi, ad manus nostras 
pr»fat» Reginse jure hsereditario similiter pervenisse. Praetereii optima atque 
plan^ cognoscentes atque percipientes magnam dictarum posseasionnm atque 
reddituum partem, antequim prsedictum HospirALB fuisset dissolutum, solltam 
conferri, impendi, atque allocari ^ Pbiorb atque Fbatribus Militibus pnedicti 
HospiTALia ad Christianorum defensionem, et ad oppugnationem Turcarum 



Atque Infidelium, et Aliorum qui apertd infestabant GathoVcam Fidem ChriBti, 
et Sanctam Eodedam, matrem nostram. Qui quidem Pbiob et Fsatjus 
MuiiTW, non loluxii huio aeculo cunctiBque lUius Tanitattbus renundayerunt. 
Bed etiam soUti font oum tempua atque oocaaio postularant, omnibuB quibus 
maximd poleraat viribus atque auxiliia pnasentes bona, sanguinem, atque vitaxa 
proftindere in oj^mgnando Tuxxma atque Infideles ubique gentium, sanctos 
igitur Oboxmsm atqus Bbuoiokxm Fsatbbs S. Johahhis Jcbubalem nr 
Anglia summoper^ cupientes, et annuadm ad hoc propensa : atque ferventi pie- 
tate quam debenus eigk defensionem etamplificationem Catholice Fidei reno- 
vare, reetauraro, creare, institaere, atque stabilire, in hoc Begno nostro Anglia, 
nomine, stilo, atque dignitate solitis, necnbn eandem Beugionsh dye OnDDiEif 
omare atque decorare omnibus antiquis maneriis, terns, tenementis, poBseasion- 
ibu8, hsreditamentis, privilegiiB, atque pnarogativiB, que nuper pertinebant ad 
dictum HospiTALi, at qu» ad manuB nostras pervenerunt, et in manibuB nos- 
triB jam existunt, ad tuendum dictum Obdinis Btatum atque honorenu Nos- 
que desiderium nostrum commnnicantes cum reyerendissimo in ChriBto patre 
Beginaldo miseratione diyinA tituli S. Marias Gosmed, 8. Romang EoclesiBB 
presbytero Gardinali Pole, archiepiscopo Gantuariend, sanctissimi domini 
nostri Pap», et sedis apoBtolics, ad nos pmfatos Begem et Beginam, et 
uniyeraa AngluB et Hibemin Begna nostra et partes ilUs a^jacentes et Latere 
Legato ; eundem reyerendissimum Patrem rogayimus, et ab eo instanter postu- 
layimus, ut auctoritate apostolicft qu& idem reyerendissimuB Pater fungitur. 
Hospitals pnodictum ad pristinum statum religionis restaurare et reduoere, 
necnon eligere et stabilire dignaretur. 

dUlt OOuttm i^verendiBsimuB Pater prout legationis qui fungitur officima 
ac manuB postulate tam piis justisque nostrorum yotia annuens, auctoritate sibi 
hAc in suA legatione concessft quft fungitur, Hospttalb pnedictum S. Johannis 
Jkrusalbm ih AmoliA pnedictum, in pristinum statum regularem reduzit, 
reposuit, et reintegrayit : necnon Prioiiatum st Hospitalb S. Johannis 
Jbrusalbh in Anolia, sub eodem titulo S. Johannis de Glerkynewell, quem 
ante dictam dissolutionem habuit, erezit et instituit. Et prsodilectum nobis 
Thomam Tresham, Militem, in Priorem dicti Hosfitaus, ac dilectos nostros 
Bicardum Shelley, Turoopoleriorum Turoopolerium, GommendsB seu Pmcepto- 
ritt de Slebiche et Halston Gom. seu Pnecep., Petrum Felices de la Nuca, 
Bi^yattls de AquiU Bajuliyum, Guthbertum Laithen de Newland, £dw. 
Broune de Temple-Bruer, Thomam ThomeU de Willoughton, Hen. Gerarde de 
lyeleyet Barowe, Geo. Aylmerde South-Baddesleye, Jacobum Shelley de,Tem- 
ple-Gombe, et Oliyerum Starkey de Quenjmgton, etiam Gommendatores seu 
Pneceptores ejusdem Hospitaljs, ordinayit et pmfecit. 

^nuttS ^g^^ur, qubd Nos pr»fati Bex et Begina prasdictas erectionem et in- 
etitutionem BeHgionis pr»dict» per preefatum reyerendissimum Patrem factam 


^t habitam non flolum appiobantes, yemm etiam copienieB ut eadem sit efficas 
et valida in lege nostii ad omnes) intentiones et proposita, ob spedalem et sm- 
eeram affectionem quam ad Oboin xx et EEuaiONXx fllam gerimufi. 

(0t nitwits ^® gratis noetrft speciali, ac ex certft scientii, et mero mota 
noBtris, VoLYMUs ac per PBJESisirrEs, pro nobis, Hasredibus, et Successoribns noB- 
trom pnsfato BeginsB, concedimns prsBfatis Priori, Bajnlivis, et Ck>nmiendatoribiu 
ejusdem dicdHosFiTAUS S. JoHAimis Jebusalbk in AholiA, qnbd Hdem Prior, 
Bajtilivi, et Gommendatores, et qnicnnqne alii Priores Bajnlivi et Gonunendatores 
ejnisdein Obdinis pro tempore existentes, sint mram Gobfus Oobfobatuh in re, 
facto, et nomine, per nomen Pbiobis et Oonfbatbuh Hospitalis S. Johannib 
Jebitbalsm in AngliA, et per idem nomen Pbiobis et Gonfbatbtth Hobpitalib 
8. JoHANNiB Jebusaleh IN Anglia, de C89tero imperpetamn nominabnntar et 
vocabontor; habeantque saccessionem perpetaam; ipsosque Pbiobsk et Oon- 
fbatbbs mium Cobfub Gobfobatuh in re, facto, et nomine facimns, creamuB, 
et stabilimus, ac fbo itno Gobfobe facimns, oidinamus, et acoeptamns; 
habeantque sacceBsionem perpetuam per |Pbjbsentbs. Et quod ipse PBiOBy 
ejusque Suooebbobbs, per nomen Pbiobis Hobpitalis S. JohannibJebubalbm 
IN Anolia prosequi, damare, et placitare possint, et impladtari, defendere, et 
defendi, respondere, et responderi, in quibuscunque Gnriis et locia Legnm noB- 
trarmn, Hsredes et Successores nostram prssfateB Beginte, sive alibi in et super 
omnibus et edngulis causis, actionibus, seeds, brevibus, demandis, et querelis 
realibus, personalibus, et mixtis, tarn spiritualibus quam temporalibus; ac in 
omnibus aliis rebus, causis, et materiis quibuscunque. 

(£ft Onnlt iidem Pbiob et Gonfbatbes per nomen Pbiobis et Gonfbatbttx 
Hobpitalis S. Johannib Jebusalem in AngliA, dominia, maneria, terras, 
tenementa, rectorias, pensiones, portiones, ac alia qusecunque luereditamenta, 
poBsessiones, perficua et emolumenta, tam spiritualia quikm temporalia, ac alia 
qusBcunque per nos, litbbas nqstbab Patentes, Hseredes et Successores noB- 
trum pnefatee BeginsB, sen per aliquam aliam personam, sen personas quas- 
cunque eis, et Successoribus suis, vel alitor secundum leges nostras de Hsere- 
dibus seu Successoribus nostrum prsBfatss Beginor danda seu concedenda capere, 
recipere, gaudere, et perquirere, ac dare, alienare, et demittere, ac facere et 
exequi, prout et eisdem modo et form& quibus alii homines incorporati, et alie 
Inoobpobationes intra Begnum nostrmn Angli», capere, recipere, perquirere, 
dare, alienare, et demittere, et facere et exequi possint. 

(I^t OOnit prffidicti Pbiob et Gonfbatbes dicti Hobpitalis S. Johannib 
Jebdsalem in AngliA, et Successores sui, imperpetuum habebunt Gommtjnb 
Sigillum ad omnimodas cartas, evidentias, etcsetera scripta vel facta sua fienda, 
eofi vel Hospitals pnedictum tangenda sive concemantia sigiUandas. 

(0t OlttnttB ^^ ampliori gratis nostr& dedimus et concessimus, et per 
fbjssentes pro nobis, Hroredibus, et SucceBsoribus nostrum prsBfatw Beginse da- 


mufl et oonoedimiu pmfiitis Puobi et Oonpbatbibus totam Capitalein Dommn 
et scitum dicti nuper Hobpttalis 8. Johanmu Jkbusalkm in Anolia, situatnm 
et exifltentem propd Glerkenwell, in comitatanostro Middelsex : ac totam Qlam 
Domam et Portam nostram vocatam le Gats House ejusdem nuper Hospitalis. 
Ac etiam totam illam Ecdesiam nostram, ac omnia domes, sedificia, stractoras, 
cellaria, solaria, cameras, aulas, ooquinas, horrea, stabula, columbaria, ortos, poma- 
ria, gardina, stagna, viyaria, les Ckmrtea, ac terram et solum nostra, et hssredita- 
menta nostra quacunque intra septum, ambitum, precinctum, et circuitnm 
ejusdem capitalis Domus et scitus, et totum boscum nostrum et terram boscalem 
nostram, vocatam Gbats S. Johh*s Wood, jacentem erg^ et prop^ Parcum de 
Haribone in Ck>mitatu nostro Middlesex ; ac omnia alia terras, tenementa, gar- 
dina, atque ductus et aquarum cursus, vacuafunda, bareditamenta et easiamenta 
nostra qu«cunque extrik et prop^ Scitum prasdictum ; que fuerunt in propria 
tenmi et occupatione Pbiobib bt Ck>NFBATBUX dicti nuper Hospitalis tempore 
dissolutionis ejusdem. Necnon omnia utensilia, les bangynges, et staura nostra 
quaecunque intra Capitalem Domum et scitum pnedicta ; ac totum plumbum, 
ferrum, et vitreum de, in, et super Eksclesiam prsedictam, ac, de, in, et super prasr 
dictum le Gatx Hoosb, ac csBteris omnibus domibus et aedificiis intra precinctuni 
dicti scitus et Domus capitaUs. 

SSOnUI ttmill* ** P'^ consideratlonibus prBsdictis, pro nobis, ac HasredibuB 
et Successoribus nostrum pnefatee BeginsB per Pb^bsentes concedimus praafads 
Pbiobi bt OoNFBATBiBns Omnia ilia dominia et maneria de Purflete, Wytham, 
Temple-Bhodon, et Chingeforde, cum eorum juribus, membris et pertinentiis 
in com. nostro Essex, dicto nuper Hospitali siyb Domtti S. Johannis Jebu- 
SALBM IN Anglia dudum spectantia et pertinentia, ac parcella possessionum et 
revertionum ejusdem Hospitalis sive Domus dudum existentia, ac etiam, &c. 

[Sequuntur eoneeuiones quamplurimorum aliorum numenorum, terrarum, tern- 
merUorunif j'c, in divenii aliit Oomitatibus intra Regnum Angliai, dicto EoqdUili 
simUiUr ah arUiquo spectarUium.] 

T. d^c apud Grenewicbe, secundo die Aprilis, a.d. 1657.